Technology and science have advanced in bounds and leaps in Western countries. Non-Western countries have also adopted the majority of Western developments in technology and science. However, their socio-cultural transformations have remained behind. This is because people live in the post industrial age while applying pre-industrial technology hence, leaving them confused. On the other hand, makers of policies conflict between scientific and social progress. The role played by a nation is extremely vital in the institutionalization process of technology and science in non-Western countries (Sawyer, 2006).
The first thesis is to describe the role of non-Western science and technology. Usually, the continuous institutionalization of technology and science in any given society relies majorly on three main conditions: the pervasiveness of a competitive, relatively and creative internal autonomous surroundings for performing science; the development of vibrant linkages among the scientific work institutions in the society and the international information system; and the adaptive and appropriate establishment of linkages between systems of knowledge and the development of knowledge utilizing regions. The degree and nature of development in institutionalization spheres considerably rely on how the tactical political, intellectual and bureaucratic influentials in non-Western nations perceive the role, significance and nature of non-Western technology and science. Examples of countries that justify such claims are India, Japan and China.
Technology and science can be nourished by a culture that is supportive. The major component of culture that is shared in modern technology and science is the dependence on the process of rational thought. Even though, the advancement of technology and science requires perceptive and modes or non rational thoughts, rationality is vital. Therefore, a rational approach comprises of an inclination to challenge intellectual traditional perceptions.
The second thesis is to debate one of the aspect related to the relationship between non-Western and Western technology and science. One of the aspects of non-Western science and technology is medicine. For instance, medicine in China is deeply rooted in Chinese traditional culture while Western medicine entails contemporary empirical science. For the last 5,000 years, people in China have relied on Chinese medication to heal diseases and to prevent themselves from epidemics. As a result, Chinese medication has greatly contributed to growth in population throughout history. Over 300 traditional medicines in the world, Chinese medicine is becoming increasingly popular (Needham & Wang, 2008).
The majority of people in China rely on Chinese medicine since it is set on practical skills of their daily lives that target all diseases. Usually, Western medicine aims in eliminating symptoms through direct methods. However, Chinese medicine lays emphasis on a dialectical analysis of the whole human body, whereby it gets viewed as an interrelated or interconnected system collection. Therefore, Chinese medicine possesses more ability in treating the majority of complex diseases like Aids, cancer and Alzheimer's. Chinese medicine reveals its power in handling sub-health problems by examining all body conditions, as well as symptoms derivative analysis (Sawyer, 2006).
The third thesis is to elaborate the reason for the long existence of Chinese technology and science in medicine. The people of China cherish Chinese medicine since it has an aspect of their culture. It manifests Chinese traditional culture matters related to their health. Chinese medication believes in acupuncture points and energy channels existence. However, in the contemporary world, Chinese medicine essence has vanished. What people learn is merely prescriptions and recipes. Furthermore, Chinese students of medicine who train Western medicine fail to be taught the backbone and essence of their culture (Needham & Wang, 2008).
Chinese medicine is much more than a trivial activity that can be referred to the country’s past. However, it is the key aspect in the country’s system of health care in regard to the uptake and supply of services, expenditure, and in regard to meeting the populations’ expectations (Sawyer, 2006).