Various international scholars researched one of the intricate topics of the entire evolution of the humankind – the development of the state. One of the most delicate issues within the context of the state formation is the structure of the state institutions and the ways in which these structures are developing and revolutionizing. Various scholars propose different theories and different explanations on what the government is, how the government institution work, and how should they work. The most widely advocated opinion was expressed by the outstanding German philosopher and statesman Max Weber. This prominent scholar has founded the theory, which is nowadays acknowledged and well-respected by the entire global scholar community. Moreover, it can be firmly stipulated that Max Weber was the pioneer who elaborated and polished the most refined theory of the organization of the state institutions and the government agencies.
Whereas the theories of his major opponents are successfully challenged by the scientific community, the one which has been designed and elaborated by Weber is known to be the most stable. Numerous efforts designed to refute this theory happened to be completely fruitless.
The Postulates of the Theory of Bureaucracy by Max Weber
The theory contains six principles of bureaucracy, which can be universally applied to any type of a state formation on any continent and within any historical period.
The first postulate of the Max Weber’s bureaucracy theory is the fact that the positions of the governmental and civil service must be strictly specified. In other words, the scope of rights and responsibilities of the respective government authorities must be clearly defined in order to avoid confusion and to ensure that the functions of the state are exercised correctly and properly. The officials on this post must not be appointed arbitrary, but exclusively on the basis of their qualifications and characteristics.
The second postulate of the Weber’s theory is the so-called hierarchical principle of the state development. In other words, it must be completely guaranteed that the superiors have the possibility to give orders to the subordinates. These orders must be accordingly and obediently fulfilled by the subordinates.
The third integral principle of the system is the postulate that the set of rules, or the system of legislation, which has been accepted in a particular country must be fully normative and completely fixed in its character (Weber, Runciman, 1978). To be more exact, the adoption of the laws and bylaws must not be arbitrary but fully controlled and exercised in accordance with the constitutional provisions.
The fourth guideline prescribed by Weber is the division between the public and the private property within the frontiers of the specific country. This operation is done in order to guarantee that the state institutions have sufficient funds to exercise their functions and to handle their integral obligations. The property which is in the public domain may not be used for other purposes rather than for the public well-being.
The fifth and the six postulates of the system state that the public service is not a duty, but a professional career and affirm that the public officials must be appointed on the basis of their qualifications. In other words, they must not be selected by the general public following the presence of the specific moral values of the personal connections, but their professional skills and qualifications are the most inseparable elements of the effective governing (Reinard, 1960).
Overall, the revolutionary model of the state management designed by Max Weber does seem to be the best tool to understand how a state in general and a government in particular shall work ideally.