Sociological perspectives are positions at which a social researcher views and develop a meaning about a social problem. They have basic assumption that is based on languages, sentiments and values. They are the issues that determine the way in which researchers see or don’t view issues. Generally, sociology is built upon a contextual perspective and everything that is studied is assumed to be social. Scientific theory takes the concern of the universe as a whole, it assumes that everything is empirical and operates in principles of law and its only human that can discover the law-like principles (Freidheim, 1976). Interpretive theory is general, it assumes that the behavior of human beings can be best understood by determining the pushes and pulls of structural forces. In its explanation, it uses methods like symbolic interactionism, ethnomethodology, labeling, social constructionism and phenomenology. These theories are accepted by free will and views human character as the result of interpretation of the environment subject.
Sociological frameworks are those used to study and social phenomena contained by a specific school of thought. Social scientists use this important tool to relate historical debates over those valid and most reliable debates. Descriptive perspective of sociological theory views empirically the information that has been acquired by experiment, observation and experience (Rex, 2002). Theories that are dependent on observation are means that even if there were methods agreed upon the scientists will still differ on the nature of experimental data.
.Talcott Parsons was one of the American sociologists who once served in the Harvard University. He developed the general theory based on the principle of methodological study of action theory. The theory of epistemology and voluntarism he advocated for attempted to strike a balance among major methodological traditions. He established a third option between the two by presenting a hypothesis of social progression and the solid interpretation. He was also responsible for interpreting and introducing Max Weber’s works to the Americans. Parsonean theory has more frequently been misunderstood by the sociological public. Meaning analysis was an attempt made to reveal the basic assumptions of the theory that made all the differences, those who centered on the results of two intrinsically related problems. The first one is the methodological predicament of order and the social problem of order.
Merton was one of the most influential sociologists in the twentieth century. He had stemmed his influence from the intellectual innovation to institutional leadership. His work was mostly done in prose and by this it made the teachers work easy and simple and also for other related sociologists. Merton shaped the American sociology in the postwar era. He sought to establish the subject not on only the basis of individual, but also on high values for constant productivity. In his approach to sociological theories, he aimed at integrating the theory and the experimental research. This has been adopted as the globally accepted approach to construct sociological theories.
The middle-range approach was developed by Robert Merton as a departure from the general social theorizing of Talcott Parsons. Merton however did not agree with the assertion that simple observational routines could substantially constitute a theory. The middle range approach is the view to sociological principles which seeks to combine theory and practical (empirical) research (Merton, 1968). It has been argued that the Middle Range Theory is the dominant approach to sociology not only in the United States but also in the globe. Abstracts from this theory can be scientifically proven and not based on generalization or bias judgment of ideas. The theories that preceded the Middle range theory were not empirically-based but rather based on broad abstract entities such as social systems in the population. These are known as Grand- theorizing of social theories and include entities such as functionalism.
Middle range theories are normally constructed through the combination of empirical research with theory building techniques from which can be derived standard propositions about the social world and which can be empirically tested. The major examples of middle range theories are formation of social norms, theories of reference groups, social mobility, normalization processes and role conflict. The middle-range approach has played a key role in turning sociology into a progressively more fact-oriented discipline.
Edles and Appelrouth define a theory as a system of generalized statements or propositions about phenomena. The scientific method of theory development involves mechanisms used scientifically to investigate natural phenomena by providing objective constructions concerning scientific investigations and analyze the data or information to draw conclusions about the studied inquiry (Edles & Appelrouth, 2010). There are two distinctive characteristics of scientific theories. Foremost, a good scientific theory must explain and predict the phenomenon that is focused on. A phenomenon is an observable fact that occurs as it is due to a variety of reasons. In addition, a theory should be testable and act as a link to several hypotheses.