Roy adaptation theory is a method in nursing advanced by Sister Callista Roy when she was in Los Angeles learning pediatric nursing (Roy, 2008). The theory is based on the propositions and concepts discussed below.
The major concept in the theory is adaptation which is the main goal of nursing. This adaptation is meant to ensure that the patient acquires the right mechanisms for adaptation in the family, in communication, and in the society at large. The cause of the adaptation has to be the environment since the victim will be expected to respond positively to stimuli in the environment for adaptability to be evident. Response to stimuli becomes positive if the individual or group develops behaviors that encompass the conditions in that environment (Roy, 2008). The outcome of the adaptation is usually credited by the health of the individual or group which is really inevitable. The health of the individual or group becomes credible when he or she integrated as a whole. This then defines the roles of promoting adaptation by nurses and other medical practitioners. There are four adaptive modes that promote adaptation including role function, physiologic needs, self-concept, and interdependence. The self concept group mode talks about the feelings and beliefs of an individual. There is an interdependence mode which refers to the individual’s personal relationships with life partners, family and friends. Role function mode entails the perception whereby the individual fits socially among people or how the person relates with different people. It also entails how the individual is supposed to behave towards the people they are relating to. The last mode is physical mode that protects basic needs like body protection, sleeping and eating (Chiou, 2000).
In conclusion, the theory has the following major concepts; adaptation, person, environment, health, and nursing. All of them interact and correlate through the roles of nurses to bring forth adaptability of individuals so that they are healthy and living well in their specific environments.