Pesticides are substances used for prevention and termination of pests. Pests are all the materials that are unwanted including animals and plants. The use of pesticide has its advantages and disadvantages. Some of the advantages associated with pesticides include productivity of crops. Pesticides eliminate pests which attack crops, leading to lower yields. These pesticides help in curbing the situation which helps crops grow better.
The other advantage of pesticide includes its control of disease spreading. These pesticides combat the spread of diseases caused by pest. Pesticides also help in protection of crops. These protections ensure that crop yields increase. Pesticides are used in control of pests in recreational facilities like swimming pools and football pitches. Pesticides also help to save lives. The use of pesticides associates with increased food supplies. Pesticides associate with lowering the cost of food.
Pesticides have disadvantages which includes their impact on people. Breathing some pesticides leads to contractions of diseases. Some of these pesticides if consumed can lead to death To pesticides’ harmful effects they include deformity of people. Pesticides have also been linked to impact risks through commodities. Spraying of these chemicals on crops has led to effects on the consumers. The use of these pesticides associates with serious impacts on the environment. These chemicals affect the environment leading to changes in weather patterns. Pesticides effects include contamination of surface water. When these harmful elements penetrate into the earth, they reach the water contaminating surface (Hurst et al., 209). Pesticides effects include contamination of soil. When poured into the ground, they pose serious effects to the ground. They are also associated with the death of soil fertility. They kill microorganisms in the soil which responsible for fertility of the soil.
The use of pesticides in the U.S has not decreased pests after the introduction of genetically engineered food. This food constantly needs spraying to avoid its reduction and it is associated with resistant weeds, which need constant spraying to avoid diminishing yields. These genetically modified crops are associated with resistant weeds posing serious risks to users of the food.
There are suggested alternatives to pesticides. These include crop rotation. Farmers are urged to plant different crops to ensure pest management. Planting different crops in the same place in different time intervals reduces the effects of pests. Crop rotation ensures that pests are controlled without the application of pesticides. Integrated management is another method of avoiding the use of pesticides. The use of these methods includes using animals that kill pests and the use of resistant crops. These crops are resistant to pests and help in the reduction of pesticide use (Van, 159).
Mining Methods and their Effects
Mining involves extracting valuable materials from the ground. The materials obtained after mining are gold, diamond, coal, titanium and oil. These products are purified after mining to ensure a final product is achieved. Mining is classified into two types: that is surface mining and subsurface mining. Surface mining includes open pit, dredging, area strip and contour mining. Subsurface mining includes underground digging. This involves use of deep shafts to reach the mineral (Ottawa, 109). Open pit involves digging a pit to acquire the mineral. This method is used for hard rocks like gold, aluminum and copper. This mining method extracts minerals near the surface of the earth. Deep sea is another mining method. This involves extracting minerals underneath the sea bed. Strip mining is another mining method involving the extraction of mineral like coal. This mining method poses extreme effects to the environment as a result of the emissions associated with it. Mountain top method involves clearing of the forest to enable the extraction of a mineral. This extraction involves excavating it from the mountains.
Mineral mining is linked to harmful effects including energy consumption. Extraction of these minerals requires energy. This energy is needed during transportation of the mineral. Purification of the mineral leads to the consumption of energy. The extraction of these minerals leads to contamination of the air. Gases and dust produced during mining contaminate the air. This leads to global warming after theemission of these gases. Extraction of minerals is associated with contamination of water (Drake, 97). Wastes produced after purification lead to the contamination of water, after they are drained to the sea. Mining poses dangers to the environment. The pits resulting from extraction can lead to the spreading of diseases.
The effects of mining can be prevented by reducing the use of these materials. Reduction of usage of these materials should be ensured. The materials, commonly used, should be substituted with other materials that do not pose effects to the environment. Recycling of materials should be ensured. Relying on minerals should be restricted and people allowed using the materials they have at their disposal. The machines, used during the mining, should be updated to ensure they produce fewer wastes reducing their effects to the environment. Substitution of these minerals should be enhanced. Other materials that could be substituted for minerals should be legalized. Mining companies should ensure they clean up the mining grounds by covering the empty pits. This reduces the risk of death and contraction of diseases.
Oil Sands versus Tar Sands
Tar sands comprise clay, sand and water, containing bitumen. Tar sands were renamed from oil sands. Oil sands are extensive mining grounds in Canada. The grounds have brought controversy in the world. This oil can be mined from the surface. Oil sand is next to the surface of the earth. These mining grounds are associated with environmental degradation. This mining is undertaken in open pit mining. This commodity is associated with the rise of nitrogen in the atmosphere. Oil sands are claimed to emit high levels of nitrogen to the atmosphere. Tar sands’ association with environmental degradation poses a massive problem to the world. This mining involves cutting down trees, diverting rivers to ensure it is accessed. Purification of this product is associated with the emissions of greenhouse gases, which deplete the atmosphere. Tar sands are branded the dirtiest, as they produce extensive wastes. This commodity emits much carbon, which depletes the atmosphere leading to global warming (Williams, 174).
The Keystone XL is proposed transportation of oil from Canada to the U.S. through the use of a pipeline. The construction of this pipeline has triggered controversy in the U.S. Many citizens claim that this transportation will lead to environmental degradation. Citizens claim that this method of transportation is prone to spills. These citizens cite that this spilling poses a danger to the environment and the people. American citizens cited that this product’s extraction leads to global warming. This is a consequence that affects everyone and the rejection of this product lowers the risk of global warming.