Crime is an act committed against the public welfare and for which penalty is imposed upon conviction. Punishment is applied at the judgment of an authority or a court, as contrasted with penalty predetermined by the law. Criminology is the study of crime, how to prevent crime, society response to crime, psychologically cause of crime and modes of criminal conviction and investigation. Furthermore, it study efficacy of punishment as compared with forms of rehabilitation or treatment. Criminology is concerned with the draws on the finding of economics, psychology and other disciplines that examine human and their surroundings
Criminologist characterizes crime as conscious response to stress, social conditions, and to the breakdown in the social order. Since culture differs in organization ad values, what is referred criminal may also differ, even though most society has restrictive customs. Psychological characters and hereditary physical are currently ruled out as an independent cause of crime. Some criminologist argues that some offenders are born in into environment characterized by the criminal activities. Consequently leading the new born to become offenders. According to Edwin Sutherland’s theory of crime argues that criminal behavior is generated from small groups.
Type of crime perhaps may be rampant response to specific circumstances. Furthermore, types of crime are determined by the society customs or law that governs the performance of the members of the public. One of the main crimes reported is that of white collar crime. This comprised poverty crime committed by individuals of relatively high social status in the course of their careers or professional (Miller, 2009).
Crime rate, although mainly indistinct by the social agenda or political agenda of those reporting and recording crime rate, tend to vary with social trend. In addition, it varies with the raising in time of depression period of disorganization and after the war. For example, in United States organized crime becomes significant during prohibition. Urban areas and poverty region report the highest crime rate.
One of the supervision techniques that states and localities transversely the country has adopted to supervise low-risk offenders and pretrial defendant efficiently is kiosk supervision. Kiosk method can substitute in-person reporting needs, are applicable for both supervisees and supervision groups. In addition, it will help move resources to average and high risk probationers and parolees who require more intensive involvement and monitoring. Supervision budgets under rising pressure and caseloads increase these features of kiosk supervision system are exceedingly attractive (Miller, 2009).
There have been documents of criminal court hearing for almost as there have been establishments of courts. By the 18th century, Jeremy Bentham proposed the use of the court statistics as a way of political barometer indicating the moral hazards of the nation. With the establishment of modern police bureaucracies in the 19th century, crime data was recorded by the police force. These were data of offences know to the police. Developed countries such as America and Europe start to uphold data of recorded crime only in the 20th century.
Houston city has a large population compared to Arlington. In the year 2007, Houston reported high cases of burglary compared to Arlington. The next two years Arlington reported high case of burglary than Houston. Houston reported high crime rate for the three years. In Houston, crime incident increased over time, but the crime rate remained constant.
In Houston, crime incident reported decreased with time, but the crime rate keep on increasing. This is because population Houston had high population and crime cases were low. The differences in crime rate for the two cities are attributed by the differences in population. On the other hand, the difference in crime incident is attributed by other factors a part from population. For example, Houston city is more developed compared to Arlington city.