Thesis StatementThe interaction between Latin American and Spanish cultures has generated what is currently the high breed culture of the two geographically distinct regions, and that the two are represented by the viceregal era, which suggest that there is no "pure" culture per se, but a combination of cultures that may lead to the formation of high breed cultural practice of the two regions.Annotated BibliographyRishel, J. (2006). The Arts in Latin America, 1492-1820 (Ed.). New Haven, Connecticut. Yale University Press.In this book, Rishel (2006) examines Latin American Art in the Spanish viceroyalties during the times of colonial times and periods. According to his analysis, there is a connection between Latin America viceregal art and the present Spanish artworks as embodied in architecture, sculptures, and many other artistic components. The book analyzes and dismisses the myth that colonial arts are more superior to the colonized nations' arts. This myth is driven by the fact that many of its proponents believe that the Spanish arts, just like other European nation's arts are pure and have no influence from other sources. While on the other hand, the colonized nations are believed to have adopted the colonizers culture. Rishel contrasts the Eurocentric view of Spanish art and 'other' arts largely from Latin American nations like Mexico. It is through description of Latin American arts as 'other' arts that the author portrays that views of European scholars as biased and lacks basis.Bertens, J. & Natoli, J. (2002). Postmodernism: The Key Figures. London. Wiley-Blackwell.
The book is an analysis of the term postmodernism as used in the modern society. Bertens & Natoli (2002) sees the term as being used irresponsibly. That is, it has been applied in numerous contexts and in the description of many things that it has become ambiguous in meaning and purpose. The culture of "postmodernism" usage has not gone down well with the two authors, who claims that its usage are rampant in wholly self-reflexive of the users, anti-referential, as well as political movement in both literature and arts. These usages are dependent on a specific artist's, writer's, or theorist's opinions and feelings. The authors draw the fact that in Latin American, just like the Spanish one, there has been tension in the differentiation of the modern culture and postmodern culture. They therefore illustrate a European colonial orientation of the modernism in the postmodernism era in Latin America. Shaw, D. (2007). More about Modernism in Spain America. Bulletin of Spanish Studies, Vol.4, No.2, 143-152.
This article approaches the cultural art of Spain America, tracing the paradox that exists between the two regions. Shaw (2007) compares the Anglo-Saxon sense of culture in Spain and Brazil, and how they coexist with inherent similarities. Although independent of one another presently, the author elaborates that historical perspective of this cultural congruence suggests that different backgrounds have been established to bring about the modernist cultures in the Spanish America. In fact, the author acknowledges although many of his scholar colleagues would disagree with his European-North American reasoning of the historical cultural congruence, he argues that their discontent with the issue is largely connected to with the thematic contents and literary techniques rather than realistic argument based on concrete thesis.Foster, D.W. (2003). Recent Latin American Cultural Studies Reference Works, Chasqui,Through different works of literature, Foster (2003) analyses the relative importance of English among the English speaking people. According to him, the Hispanic studies in the English speaking nations all over the world illustrate the culture of mixing knowledge in the modern world. However, he states that there continue to be a big gap between what is available to English studies and that which is designed for Spanish studies. He concludes that the use of references that concentrates in this topic suggest the desire by people from different backgrounds to come together and merge what they want to use, especially in language.Ebel, R., Taras, R., & Cochrane, J. (1991). Political Culture and Foreign Policy in LatinAmerica: Case Studies from the Circum-Caribbean. New York. SUNY Press. This book is about the political culture and foreign policy of the Latin America as influenced the modern superpowers. They draw this through elaboration of studies that have concentrated in the foreign policies of and international behaviors of Latin American countries, which have heavy influence on European countries that colonized them. For example, the authors state that external stimuli can explain some of the issues related to culture of governance in Latin America such as Brazil, Mexico and Chile (Ebel, Taras & Cochrane, 1991). However, the authors acknowledges that such as issues national attributes, orientation of particular regime, and social forces within a country as areas that can rarely be influenced by the external political cultures of foreign countries.