A clone is a living being that has the same genetic material or Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), with another living being; for instance, identical twins can be said to be clones since they have the same DNA. A living being can also produce an offspring by cloning itself. This is said to be natural cloning. Plants are also self pollinated, since they produce seeds, and hence more plants with the same genetic code germinate. Sometimes, a forest can exist of trees that originated from one plant, since the original tree spread its roots and new plants sprouted. According to Masters (2005, p.54), there are two methods of cloning: embryo splitting and nuclear transfer.
Boyle and Rourke (1999, P.174) on the other hand state that, "Since 1930's, experiments have been made in producing identical individuals by artificial twin- splitting (cloning). Fertilization is being taken over by "fusion," of a nucleas taken from a somatic cell of an individual one wishes to clone, with an oocyte from which the nucleas has been removed. Since the nucleus of the somatic cell contains the whole genetic inheritance, the individual obtained possesses, the genetic identity of the nucleus' donor, and that's how t a new replica of the donor is produced."
Boyle however argues that Cloning does not produce 100% identity, since the soul can only be created by God and can be controlled neither by artificial fertilization nor by parents.
Opposing Human Cloning
Human cloning actually is not Godly, since according to the bible, God is omnipotence, and people should not play the role of God. However, scientists are trying to mimic God's creation by creating "copies" of other human beings. God's creation has a difference in that there is conception of life and delivering a baby to the world, compared to cloning that violated human rights by viewing human beings as an industrial product. Cloning also violates human rights, since it interferes with the principle of pairing and equality of people. Cloning also denies the dignity of the person subjected to cloning and the fact that he enters the world as a duplicate of another person. It also interferes with the process of human procreation.
Another disadvantage of cloning is that the cloned person may be subjected to diseases, and due to lack of divergence, human beings may be subjected to diseases as well. Reproductive cloning is also expensive, since many cloning attempts may fail to produce offspring's and if they succeed, these cloned offspring have many complications and sometimes die mysteriously. According to Smith (2010, P.66), "cloning to produce children may affect the way we raise children by carrying to full expression many regrettable tendencies in our culture." He further argues that cloning to produce children makes us liable to regard children as vehicles for our own ambitions.
Cloning puts under siege, the notion that "life is a gift" since it tends to mean that a child is just an object of our own sovereign mastery. According to Mackinnon (2001, p.94), cloning may deprive the clone real parents since the clone may end up having many quasi-parents but none of them may be obligated with the role of her protector. Mackinnon challenges those who support cloning as an aid to those who are afflicted with infertility by describing cloning as decisively wrong and as a degrade to a human being by making him a product of technological manufacture.
The Impact of Cloning to the Society, Family, and Religion
Sometimes cloning can be a solution to fertility for those who cannot produce children, cloning may help these parents clone a child with desirable traits, however According to Smith (2010. P.66), this process only proofs that parents liable to regard children as vehicles for our own ambitions. Cloning can also produce undesirable traits in a clone and cloning of body parts may lead to malpractice in the society. While cloning human organs and using them for transplant, or in cloning human beings themselves, technical and economic strategies will have to be considered; for instance, whether the cloned organs are cost-effective or not.
Human cloning also takes over nature since it is not via the natural reproductive process but it involves technology other than man and woman. In other words cloning can be said that it creates life. When a human is cloned he turns out to be a property that can be sold, this is a violation of human rights and it also morally wrong to the society at large. Clones appear normal like real human beings since they can do everything on their own, and that why its immoral to use them as "guinea pigs "or instruments because some times they are even better than human beings.
Cloning of human beings devastates parenting and family life in that, the basic family concept is interfered with, whereby a couple should fall in love ,then decide on how many children to have, the intervals between the children and how to raise them, with care and love. However, parents of a clone may value the children according to how much the look like, thus undermining the elements of love and acceptance.
To the society, cloning may bring about ethical issues such as unbalance, like how reproduction is separated from love and family relationship. Such that it is possible yet unfair to clone a breed of children with special talents and who are brighter and smarter, to compete against the normal born children who vary in knowledge, size, shape, and talents, depending on their family background. In addition, in human cloning, all human beings are identical, hence exposed to threat of the same disease, if everyone has the same genes they may not have the defense mechanism against such a disease.
According to the bible (Genesis, chapter 1:26), Adam & Eve had all the power, expect they were forbidden to eat the fruit of knowledge of good and evil. Therefore, there are something's like cloning that are evil and not permitted at all in Christianity. Therefore, no man should try to take the place of God by trying to create a copy of a human, since it's only God who have created us all uniquely and in his own image. Therefore, scientists should stop "playing" God, by changing the process of creation of people.
There are four principles that are associated with medical practices that all institutions or specialists who deal with patients must ensure. First is the principle of autonomy, which is practiced to ensure that free, and informed consent for all medical treatments. Scientists are supposed to ensure that their institutions are of moral values and that they should not perform, practices that can lead either to suicide, or any action that opposes their professional integrity, values and principles. If practices such as cloning are to be performed, the donor must be fully informed of the repercussions and should understand the procedure well. Theses clarifications helps one decide whether to take the risk or not.
Secondly, is the principle of non-malfeasance that prohibits treatment if the result is negative and may lead to endangering the patient other than benefiting him. According to this principle, each process must produce more good than harm and harm should be avoided while treating patients, in all fields.
Thirdly is the principle of beneficence , which refers to always taking positive steps to prevent harm and improve the health of the patient without excessive cost or risk to the hospital. Medical specialists are required to refrain from causing harm, but they should also not neglect their patients, ensuring that evil is avoided are good is perceived.
The fourth is the principle of justice which is justified to provide to its clients whatever they deserve and fairly. Justice is acting in accordance with the requirements of some law. Therefore, patients should receive a good medical care in accordance to the law, since any neglect of a patient may lead to situations like death. This would be considered unjust since it was done out of neglect. Justice can also imply fair distribution services in society and requires that we look at the role of entitlement.