The Tung Chung-shu theory is based on the principle of perspective reality. The Wang Ch’ung theory is based on the principle of spontaneity and the expression of Tao in specific.
The Fa-Tsang synthesis of yu and wu differs from the teachings of the Tien-t’ai school. The main differences are in the relative awareness of compatibility of human existence, practical affairs and nature. The Fa-Tsang synthesis relies on the projection of the absolute, permanent mind.
In Ch’an Buddhism the ultimate reality and everyday reality are compatible. Enlightenment and ordinary experiences are not anti-thesis; however there is a difference in “awakening”.
According to Ch’eng Yi and Chu Hsi the Tai Chi and Li are co-dependent and a source of unity. The unity in operation with Li is the total of Tai Chi.
The school of mind advocates that nothing but what exists in the mind is real. The assertion between li and the mind states that what exists does without shape, within shape and above shape – it is not bounded by shape.
The Kegon school of Buddhism emphasizes the interpenetration of all phenomena. According to this school no individual is hindered or confused by any other individual or thing.
Kaibara Ekken describes the role of li as superior and uplifted and the role of chi as giving way to concrete physical expression in the universe of energy.