1. The Bio psychosocial model: Define what bio psycho model is. How it came from biomedical model [differentiate between bio psycho and biomedical]. Give two THEORISTS and how they support bio psycho and bio medical model and relate it to nursing practice.
The process of diagnosing health ailments have usually been based on the major considerations that medical assessments pertain to. In connection with that, it could be noted that medical assessments are mostly dependent on scientific indications on what a person is actually experiencing in connection with his health. The different issues are better considered through making particular examinations on the different factors that contribute to the occurrence of the symptoms of particular ailments. In accordance to this, the assessment of the blood, urine and other aspects of body signs for ailments are all undergone before diagnosis is actually released for reassessment for the sake of providing proper medical assistance that is needed by an individual to be able to recover from the health ailment that he or she might be feeling.
Meanwhile, through the different researchers that have been practically pursued for the sake of clarifying or moreover creating proper ways of assessing the situations concerned in the health ailments of individuals based on the different factors that affect their being. These researches aim towards finding other factors that could practically contribute to the existence of the health problems that one might be suffering from. It is through these researches that the implication of seeing how emotional, mental and social factors impact human health have been seen to contribute to the health issues that human individuals feel.
This is where the birth of biopsychosocial model has been introduced to the world of medical approaches to healing health problems. This particular model has been better considered as a source of understanding that is much important especially when it comes to dealing with issues of development in the field of healthcare operations. Through this model, it has been noted that being able to see through the contributors of an ailment allows health care protectors the chance to see the most comprehensive approaches needed to be taken to be able to make particular steps towards ailment solution developments for better future medical assessments.
According to George Engel from the University of Rochester [the theorist of the biopsychosocial model], this particular approach to medical development intends to create a connection between social deprivation and health ailments that are increasingly multiplying every year. It could be noticed through the years that as the developments of human living intend to create a notable approach towards the most important indicators of progress in the field of industrialization, the different kinds of health ailments also increase in number. Because of this, it could not be denied that somehow, the imposition of the major operations that the biopsychosocial model defines to be important are basically reasonable in terms of logic and systematic approach to dealing with the reasoning behind the occurrence of ailments among human individuals.
Hence, when it comes to the model’s relation to the nursing practice, it has been shown how the ways by which the nurses respond to the emotional needs of each patient could actually contribute to the patient’s response towards being cured or at least on gradually recovering from the ailment that they are suffering from at the moment.
2. Social causes of disease: Say how it relates to biopsychosocial model. Give examples of social causes of disease. Give two THEORISTS and show how it relates to nursing practice.
The environment that a person lives with directly affects the ways by which his body responds to the different elements of human living. In this world of development and increased pace of living, it could not be denied that the process of consideration applied especially when it comes to seeing how the different elements of the environment particularly affect the lives of each human individual creates a definite indicative effect on how medical progress has been handled throughout the years. Definitely, through the researches pursued, it has been seen that the different elements that comprise the human environment at present produced so much stressors that bring about confusion as well as pressure into the human mind. Being less able to handle these challenges all at the same time could cause frustrations and depressions that are all at the same time affecting the functions of the brain.
These indicative effects of living have been better proven by Lupien as he writes about the effects of the stress throughout the lifespan of human individuals. Through his presentation, understanding how ageing along with stress could actually cause one to develop weak health. Believably, it could be observed then that these forces driving the most considerable functions of the brain make it easier for the mind to falter thus pushing the body towards its weakest state.
This is further supported by the indicative understanding of Charmandry who has further proved that even children experience stress; and through studies, it has been noted that ailments starting from impacts of stomach ache and headaches caused by the said stressful matters could actually lead to more serious cases on health problems later on.
From this, it could then be agreed that the society could indeed be considered as a factor that contributes to the worsening situation of the cases that refer to lowered tolerance that people have towards stress and the elements causing these issues to thrive among individuals today. Work, regular recreation with friends or peers through drinking and overeating, stressful family life and so on and so forth, are only some among the many social elements that drive the chances by which human individuals today are deeply affected by the issues of environmental pressures directed towards the increase of health pressures that each person experiences.
It could be further noted that the mind responds to whatever a person may be involved with. This includes the society that the individual may be engaged with everyday. Considerably, the implicative sources of development as to how the brain functions as a responding element to the situations that needed to be managed by humans creates a better presentation on how and why the mind becomes weary that dictates a sense of weakness to the body. This is the reason why many depressive symptoms often lead to more serious ailments such as heart attacks and nervous breakdowns.
Basically, for the nurses appointed to give attention to patients having such problems, it could be seen that understanding the different biopsychosocial reasons could help them see through the needs of their patients. May it be related to emotional motivation ore that of the mental assistance or conditioning that the patients may need, having this important indicative information is of course a vital part of reaching the peak sense of approaching the needed assistance of the patients attended to.
3. Health and Illness Behaviour: say how health and illness behaviour relate to bio-psychosocial model. Give examples of health and illness Give two THEORISTS and show how it relates to nursing practice.
From where did the patient come from? What is his or her cultural background? What is his or her belief when it comes to the differentiation of modern medicine from that of the traditional or cultural ways of healing? These are only a few of the most important questions that need response when it comes to considering issues regarding patient’s health illness behavior.
This is most importantly considered when the patients being treated come from the aboriginal races who most often than not carry on traditional healing through cultural rituals a better sense of medication than that of the application of modern scientific medication. Believably, it could be seen that these cases often include the need to see through the environment of the patient being assisted.
Elemental factors considering their family, their culture and their beliefs are important issues of concern before any particular healthful treatments could be applied. Why the need to consider these elements? Basically, the any profession that includes medical health assistance includes the need to observe ethical measures of providing service. Medical practitioners, particularly nurses are held responsible for every act that they put forward for their patients. Moreover, they are bounded within certain grounds and limitations that practically subjects them to the need of considering what the relatives of the patients suggests, what the patient wants and what the medical protocol imposes. Being balanced in seeing all these elements is important and vital in saving the life of a patient under care. According to Helman, the need to consider cultural facets or backgrounds of the patient is a sign of concern for the wants and the values that the individual has. This concern begets respect and reputable recognition from the patient who would later on develop trust on the health provisions that medical aides provide them with.
Surely, through becoming aware of the different illness beliefs of the patients, nurses could actually follow through protocol procedures of curing and assisting patients without giving any particular chances of pointing out certain indications of insult or degradation on the part of the beliefs and traditions of the patients attended to.
4. Stress: what are stressors? Say how stress relates to bio psychosocial model Give two THEORISTS and show how it relate to nursing practice.
The diathesis or the stress model [a branch of the biopsychoanalysis model] insists on the idea that stressors are particular contributors to which the body responds to the different pressures of life. As for example, it could not be denied that over working has caused many individuals the pressure of having simple back pains and headaches that later on develop to more excruciating pain that suggests deeply rooted and more serious cases of health ailments. Due to this, it could not be denied that this is a particular stressor, being tired and pressured. Meanwhile, another stressor could be that of a painful past that a person could not simply live without. The depression that that particular past has on someone could somewhat trigger hormonal imbalance in one, creating greater possibilities of developing health problems that are most often than not easily developed when the element of stress is realized. According to McGowan, stresses from a past that has caused one to suffer certain emotional dilemma for a person may not be easily developed into a serious health problem until such time when the pain of that past depression manifests itself that could cause immediate health failure.
Hence, for those who are caring for patients undergoing such cases, it is very important that they carry into consideration that these individuals may be handling emotional baggage that might somehow be eased through proper provision of emotional understanding. Practically, being able to contemplate with the emotions of the patient makes it easier for the nurses to create possible bridges to manage the recovery of their patients in a much faster manner.
5. Life course and End of life: say how life course(mid life) and end of life(breaking bad news) relate to bio psychosocial model. Give examples of disadvantages to health during life course (mid life). Give two THEORISTS and show how it relate to nursing practice.
One of the most crucial parts of medical assistance is the time when the medical attendant needs to break the news on death. Basically, considering this scenario, it could be observed that the need to be practically careful about what one says is not the issue; instead the focus is on how he says it. Through applying the thoughts that contemplate with the idealisms of biopsychosocial model, a medical attendant could practically create an approach that would best fit the ones who are to hear the news and at least ease the pain of losing someone that they love.
Within this responsibility put upon the shoulders of the medical practitioner, the need to apply the ideas of Gollwitzer could be considered. Through his model of implementation and intentions, medical practitioners such as nurses could consider the need to put the emotional concerns of the patient or the patient’s relatives on the matter. Surely by doing so, any further moral and perhaps other health issues could be better avoided by the medical professional. With proper mandate of the situation, healthcare providers are better able to take command of their actions without trampling the rights of the patients and the relatives to know about the truth of the situations that they are currently facing.