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Testing essay
 
← Research Hypothesis in PsychologyPersonality Theories →

Testing. Custom Testing Essay Writing Service || Testing Essay samples, help

 Question 1

1 point  

  

 

At what age intentional agent cognition in humans begins?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2 months 

 

 

2 years

 

 

9 months

 

 

9 weeks

 

 

 

 

 

 

  Question 2

1 point  

  

 

Front-horizontal foreshortening theory and carpentered world theory share these common characteristics:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The way we see the world is developed over time and experience

 

 

What we see is a combination of light reflection and learning

 

 

We live in a 3 dimensional world

 

 

All of the above

 

 

 

 

 

 

  Question 3

1 point  

  

 

W.H.R. Rivers (1905) concluded this through their optical illusion research :

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Culture effects the way we perceive the world

 

 

The effect of the illusion differs between the cultures

 

 

There were no cultural differences in the results

 

 

Both A and B

 

 

 

 

 

 

  Question 4

1 point  

  

 

Stewart (1973) first tested the effects of the Mueller–Lyer illusion on both black and white children living in one American town and later tested children in Zambia and found:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

No differences between the two racial groups

 

 

The effects of the illusion depends on the degree of carpentered environment

 

 

The effect declines with age

 

 

All of the above

 

 

 

 

 

 

  Question 5

1 point  

 

 

Masuda and Nisbett (2001) conducted a cross cultural study with Japanese and Americans and found:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

There were no differences in recalling the focal object in the picture

 

 

Japanese remembered background elements better

 

 

Japanese were more influenced by background changes in the picture

 

 

The background did not affect Americans

 

 

All of the above

 

 

 

 

 

 

  Question 6

1 point  

 

 

Miyamoto, Nisbett, and Masuda tested whether Japanese and American differences in perception are due to environmental differences and found that:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The environment is linked to the cultural differences in perception and attention

 

 

The environment is not related to cultural differences

 

 

Americans and Japanese reported more contextual changes after viewing the pictures from the Japanese environment

 

 

Both A and C

 

 

 

 

 

 

  Question 7

1 point  

  

 

According to findings of Bruner, Oliver, and Greenfield (1966) as Western children grow older

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

They group things by shape, then function

 

 

They group things by size, then shape

 

 

They group things by color

 

 

They group things by function and color

 

 

 

 

 

 

  Question 8

1 point  

 

 

Chiu (1972) found that Chinese children

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tended to group objects according to relationship

 

 

Tended to group objects according to shared features

 

 

Tended to group objects according to the size

 

 

Tended to group objects according to the shape

 

 

 

 

 

 

  Question 9

1 point  

  

 

______ around the world are/is rather stable and are/is related to interesting and important psychological characteristics. Men are generally viewed as active, strong, critical, and mature, with psychological needs such as dominance, autonomy, aggression, exhibition, achievement, and endurance. Fill in the blank.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gender stereotypes

 

 

Gender differences

 

 

Self-identity

 

 

Gender identity

 

 

 

 

 

 

  Question 10

1 point  

  

 

According to a (n) ___________, males look for younger, chaste mates to bear offspring, while females look for mates that can provide offspring in the long term.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Social learning theory

 

 

Terror management theory

 

 

Evolutionary model

 

 

Base-relational theory

 

 

 

 

 

 

  Question 11

1 point  

  

 

Zubeidat and Vera-Villarroel (2006) and other researchers found that gender differences in ______ appear to be universal.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jealousy

 

 

Anger

 

 

Aggressiveness

 

 

Contempt

 

 

 

 

 

 

  Question 12

1 point  

  

 

What is the source of gender-role socialization?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Expectation from parents

 

 

Modeling of gender roles by peers

 

 

Images of males and females in the media

 

 

All of the above

 

 

 

 

 

 

  Question 13

1 point  

  

 

According to Berry et al, and her colleagues, aggressiveness is viewed as “gender marking” behavior. They suggested that male aggression may be a __________ mechanism to offset the conflict produced by a young male’s identification with a female care provider and his initiation into adulthood as a male. Fill in the blank.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Compensatory

 

 

Aggression

 

 

Passiveness

 

 

Openness

 

 

 

 

 

 

  Question 14

1 point  

  

 

Many of the cultural changes that are brought by _________ raise the tension between tradition and progress, conservatism and liberalism.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Education

 

 

Hobbies

 

 

Economics

 

 

Personality

 

 

 

 

 

 

  Question 15

1 point  

 

 

Sexual identity means the degree of awareness and recognition by an individual of his or her ____ and ______. Fill in the blanks respectively.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sex and sex roles

 

 

Gender and gender roles

 

 

Sex and gender

 

 

Self-identity, gender identity

 

 

 

 

 

 

  Question 16

1 point  

  

 

In the United States, our views of health have been heavily influenced by what many call the _________ of health and disease. Fill in the blanks respectively.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Worldwide mental health model

 

 

Biomedical model

 

 

Aggression model

 

 

Phenomenological model

 

 

 

 

 

 

  Question 17

1 point  

  

 

The concept of ______ has been used in recent years in contemporary psychology to denote not only a lack of disease, but the presence of positive health states.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stress

 

 

Skepticism

 

 

Hardiness

 

 

Depression

 

 

 

 

 

 

  Question 18

1 point  

  

 

Which one of the following statements is correct?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Concept of health does not differ between cultures, nor within a pluralistic culture such as the United States or Canada

 

 

The behaviors, such as displeasing the holy people of the past or the present; disturbing animal and plant life, and breaking social rules and taboos, is not the result of the ill health

 

 

Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) incorporates medical and health care systems and practices that are not considered conventional medicine to treat illness and promote health

 

 

None of the above

 

 

 

 

 

 

  Question 19

1 point  

  

 

Which one of the following statements is incorrect in terms of culture and conceptions of the body?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MacLachlan (1997) points out that common theories of disease in many Latin American cultures involve a balance between hot and cold which  is similar to the concept of yin and yang in Chinese

 

 

Social and cultural factors play a major role in the perception of one’s own and other’s body shapes, and these perceptions influence the relationship between culture and health

 

 

The longer some immigrants lived in traditionally Western cultures, the more their perception of ideal body shape changed to one that is thinner; Furnham and Alibhai (1983) found that the perception of body shape of the Kenyan British was different from those of the British

 

 

None of the above

 

 

 

 

 

 

  Question 20

1 point  

  

 

Which one of the findings by Matsumoto and Fletcher (1996) explain correctly the relationship between cultural dimensions and incidence of diseases?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

High power distance is positively related to the rates of infections and parasitic diseases

 

 

High individualism is negatively related to the rates of malignant neoplasm, circulatory disease, and heart disease

 

 

High uncertainty avoidance predicts high rates of cerebrovascular disease

 

 

High Masculinity predicts low rates of infections, parasitic diseases and cerebrovascular disease

 

 

 

 

 

 

  Question 21

1 point  

  

 

According to the WHO report, countries with religions that strongly condemned the act of suicide had lower reported rates of suicide than countries without religions that strongly condemned suicide. However, researchers suggested that the reports may have been biased because _____________.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The sample size is small

 

 

The results was reported by the WHO

 

 

The countries with religious sanctions against suicide may have been less willing to report and record suicides

 

 

None of the above

 

 

 

 

 

 

  Question 22

1 point  

  

 

What should we have to be aware of in order to develop effective methods of both assessment and treatment?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Culture-specific systems of healing

 

 

Universality of healing

 

 

Lists of hospitals across cultures

 

 

Social economical status

 

 

 

 

 

 

  Question 23

1 point  

  

 

Triandis and his colleagues (1988) suggested that culture, specifically ______, plays an important role in mediating stress, which affects health. Fill in the blank.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Personality

 

 

Language

 

 

Education

 

 

Social support

 

 

 

 

 

 

  Question 24

1 point  

  

 

The seven basic emotions that are expressed universally in all humans are:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shame, disgust, anger, contempt, fear, happiness, sadness

 

 

Anger, contempt, fear, happiness, pride, sadness, surprise

 

 

Disgust, fear, happiness, guilt, sadness, surprise, contempt

 

 

Anger, disgust, contempt, fear, happiness, sadness, surprise

 

 

 

 

 

 

  Question 25

1 point  

  

 

Much of the momentum for contemporary cross-cultural research on facial expressions of emotions has come from the writings of ______________. Fill in the blank

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sylvan Tomkins

 

 

Charles Darwin

 

 

Paul Ekman

 

 

None of the above

 

 

 

 

 

 

  Question 26

1 point  

  

 

Being kept from something, your desire can be seen as a universal underlying psychological theme for  _________________. What is this?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Surprise

 

 

Fear

 

 

Disgust

 

 

Sadness

 

 

 

 

 

 

  Question 27

1 point  

  

 

Death of family members, physical separation from loved ones, and world news are more frequent triggers of sadness for Americans than Japanese.  This is an example of how cultural differences exist in the relative frequencies of the various ____________ events that bring about an emotion. Fill in the blank.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appraisal

 

 

Antecedent

 

 

Physiological

 

 

Psychological

 

 

 

 

 

 

  Question 28

1 point  

  

 

_________ govern the interpretation and perception of emotion.  These are learned culturally based rules that shape how people of each culture view and interpret the emotional expressions of others. What are these rules?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Encoding rules

 

 

Display rules

 

 

Decoding rules

 

 

Masking rules

 

 

 

 

 

 

  Question 29

1 point  

  

 

Because Japanese identify emotions in hara-the gut, and that the Americans identify emotions in the heart suggests that _____________________________.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emotions are understood differently and have different meanings for each culture

 

 

Emotions are understood similarly and have the exact same meanings for each culture

 

 

Emotions are exclusively felt on a physical level

 

 

None of the above

 

 

 

 

 

 

  Question 30

1 point  

  

 

The James Lange (1927) theory of emotion suggests

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First fear occurs, then the symptoms of fear (i.e., visceral changes) result

 

 

First symptoms (i.e., visceral changes) occur, then fear results

 

 

First a scary bear appears, then running (i.e., location changes) results

 

 

None of the above

 

 

 

 

 

 

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