Misrepresentation is a danger one constantly faces, that is, sending of a wrong message to a given audience. The audience often perceives the performance as either false or genuine, hence the worst nightmare for the performer is being disbelieved by his audience, regardless of them being right or wrong. And finally, deception is an act of hiding some vital information from the audience. This can be done so as to increase the curiosity of the audience or to avoid providing too much information that would be detrimental to the actor. These elements were therefore used to model the behavior of individuals in an organization.
Weber conducted studies on Protestantism and the interaction of various ideas concerning religion, economics, or production in general. The Protestant ethics and the capitalism spirit shed light on how the Puritan ethics and their religious ideas had an effect on the growth and development of capitalism. Weber observed that religious devotion was often expected to result in an individual rejecting the affairs that are considered worldly, which often include the search for wealth and desire to be rich. Weber mainly cites the works of Benjamin Franklin who quoted that time is money and no one should sit idle if they can make money by doing any job. Thus, Weber reveals the usefulness of every job as he sees work as a blessing and calling by God, so as one works, he is actually devoting his efforts to praise God. He also defined the spirit of capitalism to include the ideas and the spirit of an individual conducive to pursuing a rational economic gain (Malkov & Khaltourina 2006).
The spirit of capitalism was observed to not only grip the Western culture, but also the heroic individuals that embraced it and strived towards a new economic order. He, however, noted that such a spirit would soon be removed from the church and people made to choose between capitalism and religion. According to then newly formed religions, people were compelled to follow a secular vacation as passionately as possible and thus would be assured of accumulating wealth. The religion was against thrift, at the same time portraying the purchase of luxuries as a great sin. They also suppressed donations to the church and often frowned at helping the poor since it was viewed as encouraging beggars. They saw this as burdening their fellow men and therefore never glorified God with their actions (Kim & Weber 2008).
The Protestant religion also viewed an individual hand in hand with the kind of work he did, and therefore one had to be in harmony with God and to glorify him by doing it perfectly. The words were further echoed by Benjamin Franklin who emphasized on frugality, thrift, and hard work. Weber therefore attributed the development and peaking of mass production to the influence of the Protestant ethics. Marxists had a different view on work from that of Weber and other theorists. The alienation perspective viewed work as a mechanism that turned man into a toil machine and degraded him so much that he no longer enjoyed anything generated by the toil. The individual is withdrawn to the extent that he forgets even about himself and any other thing (Cantoni, 2009). Following the arguments by Marx, Braverman observed that working with the capitalists was very exploitative and alienated towards the individual, hence employees were coerced into servitude. It led to deskilling of the workers since their duties became a routine. The capitalist managers constantly deskilled the workers so as to lower the costs that they would incur in production, while increasing productivity so that they can maximize their profits. The deskilled workers were easy to control as they lacked direct control over production, and therefore with time, they became emotionally and intellectually unsatisfied with their work (Braverman 1959).
The commodity fetishism links the economic value of a property to its objective aspects. Marx argued that private producers bought and sold commodities among themselves on individual initiative with no much co-ordination and the volume of production was only influenced by the market. People had no other relation to one another except for the trading. Their social relation was thus portrayed only through the transactions they made at the market place. It therefore meant that social relationships were mainly shown through the things like commodity and money. Relationship between things and people by far dominated the relationship between the individuals (De Botton 2009).
In the modern world, people are encouraged to be passionate about their work and to give their best while undertaking their career. People are constantly judged by the kind of work they do and varying levels respect accorded to them depending on their standing in a given organization. Work therefore forms a vital portion of an individual social life and relations with other people, it forms the threshold of individual well-being. Jobs held by individuals in the modern world have significantly lost their meaning. As has been observed by various scholars, duties have been made very specific and an individual’s role clearly stipulated. This leads to lack of innovation and boredom, instigating reduced productivity and lower efficiency. It has led many individuals into forsaking what is really important in their lives so as to be dedicated to their jobs (Weber & Peter & Gordon 1964).
Organizational behavior being a very important aspect of management has to be monitored carefully for efficient human management. The various theories studied above give an insight into this matter and its impact on productivity of individuals. Organizational culture also has an important bearing on this study, as in modern society, it plays a major role in modeling the growth of an organization. Another aspect of the organizational behavior management is the organizational effectiveness and efficiency. The effectiveness is the measure of the extent to which the actions of the organization are synchronized (Sennet 1998).
Despite boosting the best management skills, superior strategy, and perfect execution of commands, an organization can still fail or have very little success. The organization should thus view its employees as very important partners for it to realize efficiency and effectiveness. It is about allowing people to do what they know how to do best (NIH 2004).