Tesone (2005) defines Job motivation as a set of forces that are derived from beyond as well as within an individual being, and as a result, initiate work related behavior, as well as determine job’s form, intensity, direction and duration. Similarly, Tella, Ayeni and Popoola (2007) claims that job motivation should not be viewed only as an explanation for employee behavior, owing to the fact that it interacts with, along with acting in conjunction with other mediating processes, together with the environment.
The study by Frevedon, Golamhosain and Taebeh (2011) investigates the effectiveness of work adjustment based collective consultation in developing job motivation among the staff. Mainly, the research found out that typical motivation, along with hygiene factors, are some of effective aspects that promote staff job motivation. Moreover, the research revealed that there is no meaningful distinction between job motivation in men and women. Similarly, it became clear that work adjustment based training courses, together with the organization of collective consultation play an imperative role in promoting job motivation among the staff. Actually, considering that job motivation is a significant subject in several organizations and that the activities of the staff will depend on their motivation, then these findings will be helpful to many organizations.
Evidently, according to Frevedon, Golamhosain and Taebeh (2011) typical motivation, along with hygiene factors, are some of effective aspects that promote staff job motivation. Similarly, the two factor theory that was formulated by Herzberg, claims that hygiene factors affect an employee’s performance. Specifically, the hygiene factors include the characteristics of the work place such as the organization’s culture, working conditions, pay and supervisors. Managing these factors well will consequently lead to job satisfaction. Mainly, the values, norms and beliefs within organization play a critical role in establishing the behavior of the staff and managers, and more importantly, they may provide a suitable and dynamic atmosphere that will consequently facilitate the promotion of the staff performance in the organization.
However, according to Herzberg’s theory the hygiene factors are part of the stimuli that are extrinsic to an individual, therefore, they may not necessarily make the staffs happy. However, combining these factors with motivators such as feeling of achievement, opportunities for personal growth, and job responsibilities; then the job becomes more motivating and satisfying. Actually, these motivators intrinsically reward the employees. Similarly, Frevedon, Golamhosain and Taebeh (2011) found out that the organizations whose staff enjoy job motivation, in that the staff feel responsible, and there are growth and development strategies, they have achieved high productivity and efficiency. This clearly shows that the intrinsic job motivators also enhance job performance among the employees.
More importantly, the equity theory, proposed by John Adams, claims that individuals perception will affect their motivation because they are aware of what constitutes equity, that is, the suitable outcomes in comparison to their inputs. Whereas, inputs may include aspects such as commitment, personal sacrifice, skill, loyalty, hard work and determination; the output includes recognition, responsibility, appreciation, opportunity for advancement, benefits and sense of achievement. When these aspects are compared to each other and measured against those of other employees, both within the organization and market place, then an individual will be either satisfied or dissatisfied.