These theories explain the different methods of instilling a particular knowledge or character by awarding or by punishment. In his quest to identify the similarities between character and stimulation, Skinner came up with these philosophies. Affirmative reward entails giving an encouraging result after displaying a particular behavior. In this context, the father should shower praises to her daughter after doing the cleaning or buy a gift for her every time she cleans her bedroom. Negative reward involves removal of a particular favor after behaving in a particular manner e.g. if the daughter refuses to do the cleaning, the father should not permit her to go out to watch a movie or visit her friends. Punishment on the hand is also meant to increase or discourage a particular behavior (Skinner, 2006).
In Classical conditioning, Pavlov explains the relationship that exists when inducements that lead to sensitive response are recurred together with inducements that do not cause any sensitive response. The unconditioned reflex is natural inducement that occurs without having to force it. Therefore, it is possible that Laura has naturally grown with the fear of flying. Conditioned stimulus entails acquiring knowledge which results to a particular response. Her fear of flying might have developed from what she might have heard from people. Unconditioned reflex occurs naturally just like unconditioned stimulus. Conditioned reflex is a response where one learns to relate to a particular thing. When Laura was growing up she may have been taught that flying very high is very dangerous; therefore when one day she decides to travel by air, she might relate what she was taught with her travelling by air (Pavlov, 2008).
For elaborative rehearsal and retrieval cues, a student should split his learning time in intervals of about 25-50 minutes and have breaks in between of about 10 minutes in order to recall much of what have been read. However, the ability to remember what you had previously revised starts to shrink as days passes, therefore it is advisable that one keeps reviewing what he/she had previously revised and one will find that with time he/she will recall a lot of information. Retrieval cues, on the other hand, are inducements that are kept along with the fresh information. Retrieval cue includes going for field trips, carrying out a particular project. In other cases a student may be provided with tests that have multiple choices and also he/she should do practical tasks. These help in boosting the ability to remember (Baddeley, 2009).
The differences between cross-sectional research and longitudinal research is that cross-sectional is intended to collect information at a single point in time, while longitudinal research involves collecting information over a given period of time. The advantage of cross-sectional research is that it is very fast as the data to use is collected at the same point in time. Longitudinal, on the other hand, enables researcher to observe changes that occur over time. The disadvantage of using cross-sectional is that currently it can only be used as a second hand source of information, since it is difficult to sample the entire population. Similarly, in longitudinal research method, it is difficult to identify underlying relationships (Trochim, 2006).
The stages of cognitive development are used to explain the gradual growth of children from the time they are infants to their adult life. Some of the stages include pre-operational stage, which ranges the age of 2-6, and concrete operational stage, which ranges from 6-12. The former is characterized by thoughts which are self- centered. The children have limited thoughts which are not in line with other people’s opinion. As per concrete operational stage, which ranges from 6-12 years, the children have a right to have a different view.
A teacher should give his students a clear explanation of the assignment to be done and guide them on how to tackle the assignment. As a result, the students become enthusiastic. The teacher can also offer a reward to the student for a job well done. Learners with weak intrinsic motivation can be assisted by the extrinsic motivators e.g. rewards. The teacher could also show care to them by listening and trying to help where they can, in case a student approaches them with a particular problem. Encouraging a student to participate in class or even having more practical lessons is also important. The tactics of teaching used by the teacher should also be evaluated e.g. by incorporating a number of examples. Teacher should try to work with a clear mind, free from emotional instability (Harris, 2010)
In relation to Erickson’s psychosocial dilemma, the first time you step foot in class, the students will have mixed reactions of trust and mistrust. Trust will be portrayed by these students if they feel that your attributes are associated with love and caring character. On the other hand, students will mistrust you if they feel that you do not care as much or you do not seem hospitable. The students constantly feel rejected. The teacher should be aimed at creative high self –esteem in each and every student. This can be achieved by encouraging the student to be adventurous in acquiring fresh skills (Coon, 1989).
Achievement motivation refers to the driving force that encourages a person to achieve certain objectives or goals. Generally, people with high achievement motivation often find their life amusing. They also feel in control, as a result they become self-motivated and are able to earn individual respect. In addition, they set goals which are realistic. On the other hand, people with low achievement motivation are often afraid of handling difficult tasks. They set goals that can be achieved easily without much effort. Further, their major worry is the reward to be leaped after undertaking a given task, rather than shining individually (McClelland, 1965).