Perception is a procedure through which stimuli are deduced, evaluated, and incorporated with receptive materials. Visual perception is a sense that entails the capability to perceive illumination and translate the same as the discernment that is referred to as sight. Visual perception can also be defined as the aptitude to understand things from the impressions of visible radiation that reaches the eye. The resultant perception is consequently referred to as the eyesight or vision. Vision comprises of numerous biological constituents used in visual modality and are generally referred to as the visual system. These constituents have always been the major focus of most research in the fields of cognitive science, psychology and neuroscience (Martinez-Conde, S., Macknik, S., & Tse, P. 2006).The sensory visual system in humans lets people absorb information from the surrounding. The seeing act begins when the eye's lens focuses an object or surroundings onto the photosensitive sheath in the back part of the eye, known as the retina. The retina converts the light designs to neural signs. The eye lens concentrates light on the light-receptive cells then perceives the light photons which response by creating nerve impulses.Visual perception is a very significant mechanism of understanding the information of the environment around us. Perception helps us to gain experiences and learn through stimulation of our surrounding. Visual perception starts to develop at when one is born due to the function of stimuli and coordination of eyes and the head. Identifying and integrating prevailing signals in a growing child is a methodical growth in capability to evaluate and distinguish objects perceptually. There exists one major problem in visual perception. The misconception is that, what is seen by people is an interpretation of the stimuli of the retinal and that is why persons engrossed in perception struggle for long to explicate what is the function of the visual processor in creating what we see (Martinez-Conde, S., Macknik, S., & Tse, P. 2006).Theories of visual perception
a) Empirical theories of perception. Attempts to explain how percepts come up. The theories state that sense modality integrate information on the numerical attributes of the world into their pattern and associate stimuli to the information, instead of examining receptive input into features.b) Anne Treisman's Feature Integration Theory. Suggests separate attentions are accountable for sticking together different elements into one. It is very impacting on emotional simulations of human optical attention. Treisman, states that, in order to for visual processing to occur, various visual elements are represented with different features and also combined so as to channel attention the sensible areas.c) Interactive Activation and Competition. These are the Neural Networks responsible for ideal memory and visceral generalities. The neural networks consist of artificial neurons organized and stimulated to emulate human memory behaviors.
d) Irving Biederman's Recognition by Components Theory. It is a process that explains object recognition. The theory suggests that we identify objects by distinguishing them into geons that are in several shapes and are gathered in arrangements to form virtual infinite objects (Gordon, I., 2004).Human perceptionHuman perception is socially determined and possesses a long suggestion harbored by social scientists. The conceivability of the suggestion based on particular modern theoretical and social scientific concepts like the social contingency. Besides, facts that have been assembled in previous studies of psychology, describes the significant purpose of a person's proficiencies in the successive insights and thus improve the credibility of the suggestion (Bertamini, M., & Kubovy, M. 2006).Gestalt-Theory was started in 1912 and was put in an article by Wertheimer on the phi phenomenon. This theory focuses on an illusion through which two immobile alternating flash lights seem like a single light that is moving from one place to another. Gestalt's chief objective was not behavioristic psychology and he did it before the J. B. Watson's paper, (1878-1958) Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It (1913). This theory was as a result of solid investigations in psychology, reason and philosophy (Woldt, A., & Toman, S. 2005).Artificial visual perceptionThe philosophy and reflections on visual perception are the key the main sources of motivation for the computer vision, computational vision or the machine vision. Particular hardware organizations and software procedures offer technologies the skill to understand pictures from cameras or other imaging sensors. Artificial Visual Perception has overtime been applied in production and is getting to the fields of motorized and cybernetics (Mele, F., Ramella, G., Santillo, S., & Ventriglia, F. 2007).Abilities of visual perceptionVision offers worthwhile expectations without contact with a stimulus. Thus, the vision lets people be conscious of the plan, scope and sort of object in a space. The significance of the human visual system is duly recognized because of its capability to;a) Discover stimuli from afar, thus facilitating the acknowledgement of the items without physical contact with them.b) Control active structures and also the unanimated ones.c) Run in a divers scale with high or low longitudinal resoluteness;d) Incorporate spatial simultaneousness with progressive successive events.e) Accomplish inter-persons harmony on attributes of a stimulus.f) Lead the viewer's activities and motions in the surroundings.g) Categorize attributes of an objects (size, shape, colour, texture, location, and so on),thus enabling classification according to these attributes.Perception is a feature of the behavior of humans and as such thus a subject to numerous determiners that form additional behaviors. Particularly, every person's skill blends in a composite manner to influence one's response to particular stimuli situations. Certain courses of proficiencies are prospective in a few cultures. There exist dissimilarities in conduct and perceptual tendencies through cultures.