The increase in importance of the knowledge of the economics as opposed to manufacturing of 19th century;
Changing lifestyles especially within the middle class moving into the ever busy 24 hr. city-centre pleasure neighbourhoods;
A noticeable increase in competition between the cities for the tourism industry, funding of the major cultural flagship projects (Jones et al 2008, p. 113).
Clustering and quarters
New and innovative contemporary architectural designs.
The development of a new cultural identity.
Revitalising the old decaying neighbourhoods especially in the waterfront areas or the docks.
Promotion of the Beatles culture tourism, home town of the famous rock icons. Examples as early as in 1993, the Liverpool city council after a private initiative wanted to create a “shrine” as a tribute to the Beatles.
Rock and pop map was created over Britain; some plaques were erected in honour of pop culture. Then the pop music experienced national promotion of the Beatles culture tourism, home town of the Beatles band members.
Plaques of the Beatles were erected in Liverpool. Liverpool was awarded the honour of world capital of pop (Cohen 2005). UNESCO identified six sites, the historic centre and the dockland of the maritime mercantile city of Liverpool to be a witness to the development of the world’s major trading centres in the 18th 19th centuries. It played a major role in the growth of the British Empire. It was a major centre in the mass movement of slaves and immigrants from the Northern Europe to the Americas. It pioneered modern technological advancements in transport systems, port management as well as modern dock technology. UNESCO listed the sites including a number of significant commercial, public, and civic buildings as well as the St George’s plateau.
Although most of academic research work dealing with ECoC falls in two categories: evaluative, mainly assessing thepolicy agendas and the effectiveness of hosting the event, or critical, finding the rationale of hosting ECoC with its impact on the host cities, little attention is paid to the role of modernising urban governance policies. With regard to ECoC Liverpool especially the city council of Liverpool (LCC), it is noted that institutionalised cultural policy evolved gradually. The influence exerted by these institutions was the main cause of worry or uncertainties over the long term viability of the city’s cultural policy (Bianchini et al 1994, p. 185).
The success of Glasgow 1990 and Liverpool 2008 European Capitals of Culture had a positive impact on other cities inducing them to move towards the same direction. Even smaller towns had to prepare bids to host the event. The UK government now puts the value of culture on a higher profile. “The government places high value on culture. It is central to what it wants to do, whether for economy, quality of life or tackling exclusion”.