Since the mark of independence, the central government of the United States of America has emerged from a weak and powerless entity into a strong centralized government to what we know today as the Federal System. In an attempt to amend the Articles of Confederation in need of a more powerful central government, the Fathers of the Constitution implemented three different branches-executive, legislative, and judiciary-with different enumerated, implied, and denied powers. At the time, large populated states were in favor of a federal system. However, small states were opposed to the idea of having a powerful entity in fear of representation, and corruption. Therefore, the check and balances system was implemented in the constitution to prohibit any branch of administration from overpowering other branches and this is still evident in today's society.
The national government has several responsibilities and it employs the highest number of Federal employees. The executive division is made up of the executive independent agencies cabinet departments, and the President's executive office. Each of these offices has clearly defined duties. Within the Executive Office of the President, several offices and councils aid the President in policy decisions. The Office of Management and Budget is charged with the role of administering the Federal Budget, the National Security Council, plays the role of advising the President on issues concerning defense; and the Council of Economic Advisers, and is charged with the role of making economic policy proposals. Generally, the president is aided by many agencies, which are regulatory, independent, and others are corporations of the government. The president is responsible for nominating various officials while the Senate is supposed to confirm them. He can issue executive orders, which include instructions, regulations, and even rules. These are bound by the law and there is no need for the Congress to approve them (Sobel, 1999).
On the other hand, state governments share political power with the federal or national government, and are subordinate to the direct control of the federal system. The Governor, who is directly elected by the people, heads the executive branch of every state and works in accordance to the lieutenant governor, attorney general, secretary of state, etc. The committee system is the system in place to maximize effectiveness and productivity, implemented by Congress, in important state level matters and discussions. These committees are broken in categories and are subordinate to the national government. The Governor like the President of United States is elected after four years. The Lieutenant Governor is the second powerful person after the Governor. He or she functions like the Vice President or deputizes the Governor.
In the Federal Government, the Vice President runs for office like the President while in the State of Georgia, the Lieutenant Governor can serve an infinite number of four-year terms. On the other hand, the terms that a Governor can serve are only two-year terms like the U.S President. The Governor is responsible for appointing officials to head all the executive departments. He drafts the state budget and annually makes a speech known as the "State of the State." This speech is an equal to the President's State of the Union Speech. The Governor just like the president has the power to "pardon" offenders.
He is the head of the executive branch, Commander of the military forces of Georgia, vetoes all kinds of legislation, and has the power to sign any bill into a law but the American President does the same but on the Federal Government level. Contrary to the Vice President of the Federal Government, the Lieutenant Governor is the head of the senate and has the power to select chairpersons of various committees and vetoes committee memberships. The executive departments of Georgia State are Attorney General of the State, Commissioner of Agriculture, Labor, Insurance, Secretary of State, Public Service Commissioners. In addition to that, about thirty-six state agencies and boards help in serving the people of Georgia.