Karl Marx together with Friedrich Engels are famous for the formulation of the original ideas, concepts, and theories that became the fundamentals of a principle called the Marxism although themselves referred to it s scientific socialism. They both saw that many of their modern-day socialists did not have an objective in their perceptive of how capitalist society was emerging. They then devoted themselves to analyze the chronological forces moving towards the fall of the capitalists system and a world-shattering calamity that could bring about socialist shift and finally a complete communism. They concentrated on economic processes and structures that are fundamental in determining social organization and class relations and even the sharing of political power (Nimtz, 2000).
Marxism holds that the society progresses through class struggle, and there are different stages of development. The first stage is that of the Bourgeois and Proletarians. It says that the class struggle is between those who have and those who do not have or the ruling class (bourgeoisie) and the working class (proletariat). Through class struggle, those who labor for wages will eventually rise to power by creating unions and riots.
The second stage of development is that of Proletarians and Communists, which continues to protect communists from various objections, such as the assert that communists support free love and that people will not carry out work in a communist society because they don't have motivation to labor. It outlines short-term demands some of which are abolition of property, in land and appliance of all rents of land to public functions and heavy income tax.
The third is that of Socialist and Communist Literature that distinguishes communism from socialist principles prevailing at that time (Nimtz, 2000). The last stage is of position of the communists in relation to the various opposition parties, which speaks of the communist struggling in countries in the mid-nineteenth century such as Poland and Germany. It ends by supporting for other communist revolutions.
Feminist theory tries to discuss on the nature of gender inequality. It examines women's social roles and experiences and feminist politics in a range of disciplines such as sociology and economics among others (Ackerly, 2000). The theory has faced criticisms. Liberal feminists have been criticized for failure to comprehend that, in any culture that is fundamentally imbalanced in opportunities, equality is meaningless. Radical feminists put more emphasis on the factors that separate women from men especially the biological difference.
Marxist is criticized for over-emphasizing on class relations in the economic sphere and not concentrating on the power of women outside the labor market. Socialist feminists have been criticized for neither being revolutionary nor radical to seek for possible solutions to the problems of women's economic and social exploitation and subjugation. Bar On (1993) argues against instructing women's epistemic opportunity in their subjugation.
As these criticisms fight against subjugation of women in all disciplines such as politics, IR theories also focuses on the development of abstract frameworks and theories to aid the understanding and justification of actions and phenomena in world politics and analysis (Ackerly, 2000).
State level theory looks at the foreign rule performance of states as manifested through the state's characteristics. It has some criticisms some of which are as below. Democratic peace theory criticizes realism for being inappropriate to democratic states' affairs with each another, as their studies maintain that such states do not fight with one another.
The backing for political powers where final authority is divided (federalism) says that a unifying affiliation amid states should be set up under a universal system of rules and, therefore, clashes, and discrepancy should be resolved through peace rather than war.
Post-realism advocates that Realism is a structure of social, scientific, and political style. It opens instead of closing an argument about what is authentic and what is practical in international affairs. System level criticisms explains that lack of disclosure will make the system vulnerable to manipulation by government officials while state level theories criticisms explains against how the state should behave such as that of seeking power.