The author presents a more complete understanding of his vertical and lateral rhetoric required to answers two preliminary questions, such as:
(1) Who are "the people"?
(2) What ends does the agitator seek?
As the book progresses, Hayden provides the reader with revealing answers to the questions raised. Despite being criticized for being categorical in including people to movements without even telling them or asking them, people represent his vertical and lateral periods. The authority deprived them of power, material goods or freedom in the modern American society. The author also accords "people" a heroic status, while reducing others to villains. According to him, the Irish people attempts to rebel against the social injustices by relying on reformed identities and structural powers. Those who keep the needs of people in mind, create the understanding of their own members of society and govern them according to their own knowledge and existence. This existence failed psychologically to repair the damage they encountered. For this reason, such differences need not survive among the poor students and other youths, but should extend to millions of other ungrouped Americans. From these ranks, the beginnings of the movements gain their momentum." Hayden responds to the question of “what end the agitator seeks by citing exposure. People are sufficiently exposed to reality, and the truth will always backup his reasoning.
The system survives because of the lack of proper understanding of people. When they become conscious and form an organization, it is because their recognition to those authorities does not conform to the truth. Therefore, they have to come up with alternative ways of satisfying their own needs and finding out what the truth is. The author accepts the hypothesis that a movement is based on truth. On the other hand, an agitator ought to communicate the truth to people. Thus, such an establishment will eventually attract a limited number of people to its cause. Moreover, whoever stands by the truth gains more and more authority, and thus the success of any movement depends upon spokespeople who seek and communicate truths. Any successful movement can only receive popular support if the members are truth-seekers and propagators. That is what he meant by saying that time is on their side, because as long as that the process remains unending, predictable and incidental, everything would be finally discovered (Hayden, pg. 60).
These are the most important of the concepts that the author used to support his argument. They provide answers to the questions posed regarding Hayden's vertical and lateral periods of political and social activities.
It is necessary to establish to what extent the variation in language manipulates persuasion. Hayden’s views on the use of language are discussed in light of how he employs language. His lexical choices are frequently highly symbolic, vague and existential. For example, in defining the justification for a student’s movement the author responded, "I must value life and ethically, we must have a reverence for man.” As per this concept, reverence is a belief that if one man is not free then none of us is free.
Moreover, he assumes that those well-versed in truth will respond in a similar way collectively.
"Never wish to be a student disguised to being a man. Never study as a student, but rather as a man who is alive and cares. Leave the isolated world of Ideological fantasy, allow your ideas to become part of your living and your living to become part of your ideas...the time has come for a re-assertion of the personal."
The author's understanding of these words lacks full comprehension of any communicative process. He believes that people associated with a given movement have a similar understanding of language. Whether or not the establishment understands a movement’s language is unimportant. An excerpt from Hayden's testimony before the House Un-American Activities Committee indicates his views. When asked for the meaning of the term "attacking", he gives a much-unexpected answer that "it is your meaning, but is my word."
Another question that needs to be answered is under what conditions language should be used to intentionally inflame, incite, derogate, or lead to reasoned discursive exchanges. There are explicit answers to the question, and there is no reason to continually put down the white liberals for only contributing funds and legal advice without going any further. There is no reason to antagonize anyone unnecessarily, which is a form of pseudo-politics and a substitute for action. Hayden claims that unwritten abuse is used to respond to verbal abuses perpetrated by agitators. Perhaps our language would be acceptable if it were divorced from practice. Therefore, according to Hayden, obscenity as part of free speech only allows our language to be a part of our criminal actions.
To sum up, the communicator facilitates message saliency by focusing on clarity and consistency. He sees language as an essential tool in the maintenance and stability of the movement; it creates an identity separate from its own establishment, unifying its membership. The art of creating a new language that the movement understands facilitates message clarity and salience. Therefore, an organization’s lexical style affects its very existence. However, hypocrisy affects the establishment language, when new words created to express feelings, also create a new weapon that mysteriously threaten conventional powers.