The people who live or come from the country known as Peru are called Peruvians. The national language is mainly Spanish up to date.Peru is best known as the heart of the Inca Empire, but it was home to many different native cultures long before the Incas arrived. Peru is well located in western South America; it extends for nearly 2,414 km along the Pacific Ocean. Colombia and Ecuador are to the north, Brazil and Bolivia to the east, and Chile to the south. (p. 2)
It is believed that a Five-sixths the size of Alaska, Peru is divided by the Andes Mountains into three sharply differentiated zones. To the west is the coastline, much of it arid, extending around fifty to a hundred meters and 80 to 160 km inland. The mountain area, with peaks is over 20,000ft superior plateaus, and deep valleys, lies centrally. Ahead of the mountains to the east is the heavily forested slope leading to the Amazonian plains. (p. 372)
A good layout of the exact position of Peru is well indicated in the map below;
Even though there is proof of human occupancy in Peru as long ago as the eighth millennium BC, there is little evidence of planned village life until about 2500 BC. It was conquered by the empire of the Spanish in the 16th century, which established a viceroyalty with authority over most of its South American domains. (p. 272)
Peru gained independence which was declared in 1821 but consolidated only after the historic Battle of the Ayacucho, which happened three years later. It was at about this time that climatic changes in the coastal regions encouraged Peru's early inhabitants to move toward the more fertile interior river valleys. For the next 1500 years, Peruvian civilization developed into a number of organized cultures, including the Chavìn and the Sechìn.
The Chavìn are best known for their stylized religious iconography, which included striking figurative depictions of various animals the jaguar to be exact and which exercised considerable influence over the entire coastal region. The Sechìn are remembered more for their military domination than for their cultural achievement.
Some many other cultures like Paracas emerged on the southern coast around 300 BC. They are known for their use of special fibers known as vicuria instead of just the common cotton to produce fine results of quality textiles innovations that did not reach the northern coast of Peru until centuries later. Coastal cultures such as the Nazca and Moche flourished from about 100 BC to about 700 CE:
The Moche community produced remarkable metalwork, as well as some of the most excellent works of pottery seen in the ancient world, while the Nazca communities are known for their textiles and the enigmatic lines known as Nazca lines artwork.
These coastal cultures eventually began to decline as a result of recurring floods known as Elnino and constant famines. As a result, the communities of Tiwanaku and Huari who lived inland in the Andes became the principal cultures of the region surrounding much of modern-day Bolivia and Peru. They were overpowered by powerful states for instance Cajamarca, Sipan, Chancay, and two other empires: the cultures of Chachapovas and Chimor. (p. 572)
These cultures improved relatively highly developed techniques of agriculture mainly cultivation, gold and silver craft, metallurgy, pottery and knitting. Around 700 BC, the systems appeared to have improved especially those of social organization that were the precursors of the empire of Inca civilization. Although some would argue otherwise, Peru could be described as a patriarchal society. Men are preferentially treated in most, if not all, aspects of society. Sons are preferred over daughters and are given more liberty, and are less burdened with household chores and family duties.
In theory men are expected to marry and provide and care for their families. There are, however, large numbers of female-run households where the mother has to work and provide for her children due to many different reasons. In the meantime, it is a frequent social practice for men to have other female lovers and children outside of their original marriage. Peruvians also have suffered the brunt of racial and cultural discrimination since their liberation in the year 1854. Through the lack of better chances to improve their social situations, many Afro-Peruvians have been restricted to rural work or domestic labor. (p. 56)
The black community has traditionally occupied the coastal parts of the state and has its main concentrations along the areas of Chincha, the neighborhoods of La Victoria and Matute within Lima. Meanwhile, black men in Peru have been predominantly allowed to do extremely well as national icons within both local and national soccer teams. This iconization of Afro-Peruvian athletes as national sports heroes stands in sharp contrast with the friction that the community has on the whole encountered as part of Peruvian culture.
The Peruvian cuisine is one of the 3rd best world cuisines which have the first with most typical dishes in the world. It's a mixture of 4 continents: America, Europe in Spanish and Italian, Asia in Chinese and Africa. Peru has different dishes in the coastal, Andes and Amazon rainforest area. This cuisines have been a greatly maintained culture and upto today it has brought lots of pride to Peru. Another Peruvian social value is the music the traditional dances and clothes that have even today become a major tourist attraction. (p. 175)
Peru is a multicultural country. Peru has about 44 language branches Although Spanish is Peru's official language, a multitude of indigenous languages continue to hold sway in the highlands. But indigenous people especially the young and youths are losing their own native language, music and traditions and are trying to live in the ways of the modern culture.
Personality behaviors are valued in this culture,
The state of Peru has several cultures, but in general, the personality traits that are valued in Peru are similar than in the Occidental world, the honesty is very valued and has been passed on from generation to the next.
It is known that Peru was the first Latin American country to allow Japanese immigration. The sakura Maru carried Japanese families from Yokohama to Peru, arriving on April third the year 1899 at the Peruvian port city.
This group of seven hundred and ninety Japanese became the first of successive waves of emigrants who made new lives for themselves in Peru, some nine years before emigration to Brazil began After the beginning of the 2nd World War, the department of United States reached an agreement with the government of Peru; and Japanese Peruvians were rounded up and transported to American internment camps run by the United States. (New Zealand. 2007 para. 6)
The Peruvians who migrated to the united states was due to many reasons mainly first was to search for better economical opportunities other reasons was to run away from wars Low oil prices and floods that damaged export crops, coupled with political instability and financial mismanagement, caused a second economic crisis in the late 1990s. The national currency lost more than two-thirds of its value, and the joblessness rate rose to fifteen percent and the poverty rate to 56 percent. (New Zealand. 2007 para. 8) These among many others were some of the conclusions on how your parents and other Peruvians may have gone to the United States.
The heritage of Peru is very rich and was founded in the year 1999 with the main aim of offering globalization. This is mainly because the natural products had come from the combination of the ancestral wisdom of the Peruvian people and Peru’s amazonic wealth. There are a lot of beautiful national parks, reservations, sanctuary national forests and hunting enclosed lands. The flora and fauna are well protected by strictly forbidding of human settlement and exploitation of natural resources.