Nanotechnology refers to the study and practice of controlling matter on a molecular and atomic scale. Modern nanotechnology, as novel as it is, helps scientists to deals with molecular structures that are sized between a single nanometer to 100 nanometers, in at least a single dimension. This makes it possible to develop materials and even devices with such infinitival sizes. The practical applications of nanotechnology have become very diverse in recent times, ranging from the extension of conventional physics devices to novel approaches of molecular self-assembly. Important to this present study is how nanotechnology has been used to develop new materials of the nanoscale dimensions, as researchers investigate our ability to control matter directly and on an atomic scale.
While this is all good, there has been a rising debate on resultant implications of nanotechnology. Today, nanotechnology is used to create new devices and materials with a wide range of applications in electronics, energy production, biomaterials and most importantly, medicine. Nanoparticles have been recorded as to contain a nanostructure-dependent set of characteristics as prescribed by their small size, shape, surface charge, solubility and or chemical composition. One of the major strengths, and a trait, of nanomaterials is that they are normally small enough to the extent that they easily penetrate human tissues and cells via tiny capillaries. This penetrating ability means that nanoparticles have an ability to affect most of the human cells’ physiology, including the brain and the testes. This two organs specified here, are significantly both requisite reproductive organs.
It is yet undetermined the extent to which nanoparticles can permeate human cells and what biological ramifications this might have. The fact nanomaterials’ either natural of synthetic, has such application results, becomes a matter of substantial concern. Questions into the possible severe biological effects of cell intoxication or the dangerous level of toxicity in individuals arise.
The chief concern in regards to their toxicological repercussions is the fact that we have some manufactured nanomaterials already noted to have redox activity. This becomes even more important when the potential of transporting other particles through the cell membranes and even into the mitochondria, is considered.
Statement of Relevancy
Today nanomaterials have gained a wide range of applications. Yet, the available information especially as regards the impact of manufactured nanomaterial on the human health and the environment is scanty. Hydraxyapatite nanoparticles bear similar chemical properties of composition as the human bone, besides being biocompatible. HA is today widely used in bone-repair, dentistry, food science and orthopedics. Reproduction as a biological process only works in response to endocrine disruptors in their environment. Many chemicals may have negative impacts on the gametogenesis reproduction by direct or indirect effect on somatic nursing cells.
In this regards, nanoparticles may affect ovarian granulosa cells responsible for maintaining ovarian operations, health and female fertility. The purpose and intent of this proposal is to investigate whether Calcium Phosphate nanoparticles, which are among the most common nanotechnology products, have an effect on the production of hormones and the apoptosis occurring within human granulose cells. This is because there is an existing knowledge gap in the application of nanotechnology in medical circles. There has been little if any research into how the nanoparticles produced synthetically for medical use impact on the body, especially in regards to their ability to permeate other cells and body tissues.
It is understandable why this research is of a pressing importance. Nanotechnology promises as much as it raises questions of usage and implications. As with any new technology, its appropriateness shall be determined by how safe, beneficial and controllable it proves to be in application. The highest level of concerns however lies in the level of toxicity to humans and the environmental as an impact of the synthetic nanomaterials. There has been a series of ignorant projections of the potential impact of nanotechnology on the global economics and speculations about doomsday scenarios, none of which have been based on sound empirical research.
It is the hypothesis of this study that the Calcium Phosphate nanoparticles used today in bone-repair, dentistry, food science and orthopedics, have characteristics and properties that bear a potential to permeate the human granulose cells and thus affect the production of hormones and the apoptosis occurring within these cells. This study will thus endeavor to substantiate which among the characteristics and properties of Calcium Phosphate nanoparticles have a potential to permeate the human granulose cells.
To determine if Calcium Phosphate nanoparticles have the potential to permeate and affect human granulose cells based on their characteristics and properties. The second specific aim is to determine the potential impact of the Calcium Phosphate nanoparticles after permeating human granulose cells, inclusive of affecting the production of hormones and the apoptosis occurring within the human granulose cells, as can be determined from the characteristics and properties of these nanoparticles.
The high level of concerns about the toxicity of nanomaterials has led to heated debate amongst government agencies, public advocacy groups and research establishments on whether nanotechnology deserves special regulation, just as atomic energy production warrants. This study will help in generating such information, leading to a conclusive understanding of how nanoparticles affect the body and in one of the most basic functions of a human body, reproduction. The proposed research is expected to provide novel, important and relevant insights into the impact of nanoparticles to the biological functioning of reproductive systems. Furthermore, the results of the proposed study will help in designing control and regulation of nanoparticles products.