Paternity testing determines whether a person is the biological father of a particular child. The paternity testing procedure presupposes collection and examination the DNA sample of blood, skin, hair or anything else from a child and the father (who may be only alleged). Nowadays paternity tests are performed with the help of molecular genetic analyses.
DNA fingerprinting is a test that aims to identify and evaluate the genetic information which is in a person’s cells. They need only a small sample of cells as the root of a hair, blood, saliva, semen, or sweat. DNA fingerprinting remains the same during the whole life of a person. Our cells contain a mix of 23 chromosomes from the mother and 23 chromosomes from the father. A DNA paternity test gives the opportunity to indicate the proof whether there is any father-child relationship between two individuals. DNA (or a genetic fingerprint) of every individual is unique except for identical twins or triplets.
Genetic technology is implemented to investigate paternity. DNA is the basis of paternity cases and it requires the usage of accurate paternity testing methods. In order to distinguish between individuals by using their DNA samples, scientists use such techniques as DNA typing, DNA testing, DNA profiling, and genetic fingerprinting.
The paternity test is based on the comparison of the genetic profiles of the child and alleged father. Comparison of the banding patterns of a parent and a child generated the relatedness probability. Each DNA strand contains information code which is genetically unique. Two similar patterns indicate kinship relations between people.
Thus, genetic fingerprinting is one of the most accurate methods of paternity identification. It helps to verify the parentage, but it cannot definitely say whether the person undergoing the test is the father or the mother.