Altschuld and David (2010), claim that training needs analysis refers to both learning and development needs for the employees, volunteers, as well as trustees in an organization. Actually, the training needs involve the knowledge, skills and behaviors that these people need, in addition to identifying how to develop them effectively. Generally, the organizational training needs analysis is ideally undertaken at three levels, which include Manager, employees and Trainer. Mainly, the three levels are inter-linked, and it is crucial to ensure that there is balanced analysis, which will put into consideration the big picture together with the specific needs of individuals.
Generally, the manager role is primarily involved with planning, organizing, controlling as well as developing programs and activities in an organization. Moreover, they are responsible for productivity of the employees, and as a result, the manager need to be aware of the skills and knowledge that will enhance increased employee productivity (Armstrong, 2009). The fact that the organization can lose crucial data that can jeopardize its operations, then the management feels the need for the employee to acquire data protection techniques.
Actually, the employee focuses on the knowledge, skills and abilities that will be inherent for the staff in the future as the jobs evolves, or changes. With growing technology, there is a need for the organization to also position itself with the current development. According to Andrson, (2011) employee need indicates the intervention that is required in a job. Actually, this identifies the key behaviors as well as the activities that should be performed in a certain job. More importantly, the employee needs are actually specific on the staffs that require training, and moreover, specifies at which particular area (Sultana et al. 2012). This is normally obtained from the performance appraisal data, and, moreover, the same is compared with the standard performance or expected level. Furthermore, it can also be obtained through interviews or questionnaire (Armstrong, 2009). From the analysis, it is evident that the employee will need data protection and management training. This training is aimed at reducing the risk of the organization losing important data, which can otherwise jeopardize its operations.
Basically, trainers need will ultimately depend on the type of training that is needed and more importantly, the people who will receive it. There are several types of training techniques relevant for employee training, but in this case, the trainer will need an off-the-job training program. Mainly, a trainer to conduct data protection training shall be identified, and actually, it is important for such to be in a position to deliver the required information (Armstrong, 2009). The trainer should also be able to operate the systems that will be used and this includes speaker system, and a projector along with other system requirements necessary for conducting a successful presentation. Actually, this is because the training will employ power point presentation method.
The Training Methods
Basically, there are several methods that are used while training staff, and one of them include lectures. Specifically, the organization shall use lecture method, which will be incorporated with power point presentations in order to emphasize on particular points. Actually, a power point presentation is a computer program or software that presents information through a slide show and it is displayed on the computer monitor or projected on a screen (Bartsch and Cobern, 2007). In this particular case, the information from the power point presentation shall be projected on the screen. However, it is evident that the power point presentation has a number of advantages as well as disadvantages, not only to the trainees, but also to the trainers.
Advantages of power point presentation
First, through power point presentations the trainer is able to catch the attention of the trainees. Actually, according to Rieber (2006) power point presentation has the ability to get as well as enhance attention of the targeted audience. This is actually because most people are able to pay attention to shows or presentations that employ visuals and the dynamic images, animations together with other visuals that can either move or be maneuvered by the presenter. Consequently, the power point presentations has these characteristics which will be inherent during the training session. Therefore, it will be easier to reach the trainees as well as to get their attention.
Secondly, Bartsch and Cobern (2007) describe power point presentation program as a user friendly technique that is easy to use. Inherently, it is easy to learn to use power point presentation especially being the trainer, since the program does not necessarily call for a formal lesson. This is because individuals can easily learn as well as teach themselves how to use the program since it has tools that are user-friendly and easy to follow and moreover, they have various tips together with sample templates. As a result, this will offer the trainer a smooth time while presenting as well as while lecturing. Consequently, this will not only save time used while lecturing but also it will enable the audience to follow easily.
Another advantage of the power point presentation is the fact that the program has been pin pointed as an effective tool for teaching. Actually, according to a study conducted by Rieber (2006) to identify the effectiveness of power point presentation, it was revealed that the program is effective in illustrating images, together with visuals that could be difficult to draw, or will consume a lot of time to draw while using the traditional methods such as pencils and pens. Actually, power point presentations has graphics applications, which are inherent in illustrating images and visuals, and consequently simplifying the whole process. Mainly, the training while include some visual presentations with an aim of helping the audience understand easily and, therefore, power point presentation will come in hand by providing the applications that which will be used. This will also save time the trainer would otherwise use to prepare.
Actually, it is easier to follow the power point presentations as compared to other methods such as lecturing. Normally, the power point presentation involve shortening notes while putting into consideration the main points. Moreover, these points can be presented in a more articulate manner and in a way that the audience can follow. Moreover, owing to the fact that the presentations can be saved in the computer, it is easy to retrieve them, or even go back if there is a need to (Bartsch and Cobern, 2007). Similarly, the program has printing options, which make it easy to print the training materials which can be provided to the audience for future reference. Additionally, power point presentation is also known as a non-linear organization model, that is, the program has a capability of breaking away from the linear presentation of materials and employ a non-linear organization model. This keeps the audience attentive, and also, signifies that it can integrate various other techniques within itself. As a result, power point presentation offers an effective way of training.
Similarly, it is easy to edit power point presentation notes. Actually, if the trainer notices that there is a need to add more notes, or a mistake made during preparation of the presentations, then it is easier to edit without compromising on the whole material. This is quite different from some of the traditional methods such as pictures. In addition, Bartsch and Cobern, (2007) claim that power point presentation is a low cost method, especially if the projection facilities are available. First, it is easy to prepare the presentation and, therefore, little time is required. Secondly, if there is projection facilities and a computer, then one will only need the manpower, and little time. However, in traditional methods, one will need to have a drawing tools, writing tools and papers, which will obviously require resources. Moreover, while using the power point presentation, it is easier to access other resources through hyperlinks and, therefore, the program offers an integrated method that is easy to prepare, use and follow, and saves time.
One of the main disadvantage of the power point presentation is that it promotes lack of interactivity. Actually, the fact that power point presentation has many tools that probably would have otherwise made the trainer to make the audience participate is a disadvantage to the trainees (Rieber, 2006). Actually, with a number of operations that can be done using the program, it makes it difficult for the trainers to interact with the media and the audience. Moreover, most of the students are aware that they can be given the material the trainers are using and, as a result, some may lose interest since they will have a chance to refer to the material if need be once they obtain them. Consequently, it promotes passive learning, and this may not be good for the audience.
Moreover, there is a very high likelihood of distracting the audience from the actual information while using the power point presentation. Actually, power point presentation employs quite a number of animation, background images, and graphics along with other dynamic visuals (Rieber, 2006). Inherently, such applications can easily distract the audience from obtaining the intended message or information being relayed to them. Consequently, power point presentation can only be restricted to some types of presentations. Essentially, presentations that will require detailed processes and procedures such as technical report will not go well with power point presentations. Actually, using the program for such presentation will call for omitting necessary details that will make the whole process difficult to understand (Bartsch and Cobern, 2007). As a result, it is prudent to only restrict use power point presentation to specific types of demonstrations as well as ensure proper management and use of the applications.
Moreover, the power point program calls for a number of system requirements, some of which may be expensive. For instance, in a presentation for a medium to large size of audience, then there is a need to have an interrupted source of electricity while the presentation is ongoing, a computer system that does not exhibit software breakdowns or free from technical problems, speaker system, and a projector along with other system requirements necessary for conducting a successful presentation (Bartsch and Cobern, 2007). More importantly, it is crucial to set the presentations at the required resolution and brightness, although this can be adversely affected by the room condition. For instance, a very bright room may make it difficult for the audience to see, and if the room lights are dimmed, then this can encourage the audience to sleep and, as a result, reduce interaction (Rieber, 2006). Consequently, the system requirements that need to go along with the presentation may also cause other unwelcome behavior.
After, the training, then an evaluation process will be conducted in order to determine the worth, meaning or value of the training process to the staff. Actually, the evaluation process will seek not only to identify whether the staff has gained the intended knowledge, but also whether they will be able to make use the data for their own good, and that of the organization (Sultana, et al., 2012). Essentially, although evaluation will be an ongoing process, a systematic evaluation of the design, presentation and content of the training program will be piloted immediately after the end of the program.
Actually, the assessment of the program will relate to the objectives and goals of the training. This will include: what was useful, what was not, what worked, and what did not. Specifically, the participants will be evaluated on five major classes of information.
First, the evaluation process will seek to identify the initial status of the participants, with respect to how proficient they were in terms of data protection and management (Andrson, 2011). Secondly, the participants will be evaluated on what they were supposed to learn, which includes the skills, knowledge and acquisition of data protection and management techniques. Actually, since there are standard procedures for data protection, then the procedures will provide a useful measurement technique for the training (Sultana, et al., 2012). Moreover, the evaluation process will also put into account the information associated to the execution of the training program. Specifically, this will involve the extent to which the data protection training program was carried out while putting into consideration the discrepancies evident during the training. Essentially, this will provide feedback that may be on needed changes of design, which is very useful to the designers. It is also important to assess whether the expenditure with regard to resources used for training are justified.
Moreover, in order to help the trainer to self-evaluate himself, then questions regarding the goals and preparations will be useful (Andrson, 2011). Similarly, it is important to consider the directions provided by the trainer, the activities and the instruments employed by the trainer, the time limits allowed for the program, along with the staging in terms of the facility used for training. In addition, information about the participants together with the staff will be useful for self-evaluation. The participants should also provide their view on how the facilitator’s voice was, and physical presentation of the trainer.
Techniques to be used
First, the facilitator will be encouraged to use non-verbal clues while the program will be ongoing. The non-verbal clues include the facial expressions and gestures that can provide an insight of how the trainees are thinking or their feelings (Sultana, et al., 2012). Mainly, the evaluation process will employ two main methods which will include a questionnaire and self-assessment methods. The questionnaire method involves a set of written items that will be useful in eliciting the data from participants with regard to specific aspects of training. Similarly, self-assessment involves an assessment exercise that will help the participants to crosscheck what they have learned through the program.
In conclusion, training is necessary to the employees as it keeps them fit to perform their work at the required standards. Generally, the organizational training need analysis is ideally undertaken at three levels, which include organizational, team or departmental and individual levels. Similarly, in order to train the selected employees, then power point presentation method is adopted. It is revealed that the method has more advantages than disadvantages and, as a result, it can be described as an appropriate method. More importantly, it is crucial to conduct the evaluation after training in order to determine the worth, meaning or value of the training process to the staff. The techniques that employed for the evaluation process include a questionnaire and self-assessment methods.