Motivation is crucial for success in our world. Bruce and Pepitone (1998) defines motivation as the consisting of the drives that move people to do what they do (p. 1). Motivation is a very essential and underlying factor which drives people to reach their goals. Generally we can define motivation as the force that drives us towards attaining a certain goal. Motivation is important because it increases morale of individuals. There are several theories with different views as to what motivates people. Examples of these theories include, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, expectancy theory among others.
Fournies (1999) say people do the things they do because of their needs; that is, they direct their own actions to satisfy their own needs (p. 30). Maslow arranged these needs in hierarchy, whereby when a need one level is satisfied, the next level need becomes predominant. Maslow theory helps in boosting morale of individual, because one will strive hard to rise from one level to a higher level in the hierarchy. The second theory I will discuss is expectancy theory, it explains the process that one undergoes to make choices. Expectancy theory gives the following prepositions;
- When deciding between behavioral actions, individuals select the option with the greatest motivation force.
- The motivational behavior, action, or task is a function of three distinct perceptions. Expectancy, instrumentality, and valence.
This theory helps in boosting individual’s morale when they are made to believe that, the more effort they put the better the job performance and better performance will lead to rewards from organization.
Understanding how the brain processes and regulates motivation helps us in motivating ourselves in life. As Goldberg explains motivation and attention are controlled by the prefrontal cortex, which is the rest is to the brain what a conductor is to the orchestra. The brain, particularly the hypothalamo–limbic system, regulates adaptive mechanisms to protect individuals and species responding to environmental changes by controlling behaviors, visceral functions and higher cognitive functions. Both Maslow and expectancy theories apply this philosophy and it helps us to motivate ourselves in life.