1. Why should people be concerned about managing their careers? What can happen if people do not actively plan and manage their careers?
Career management is extremely critical in various aspects of human life. For anyone, a career is the ultimate of one’s active life. What one chooses to life is what he sticks most likely in life (Greenhaus, Callanan & Godshalh, 2000). Good management of a career is what determines the future employment commitment of an individual. It is what determines the trade skill, business firm or profession for the entire working life of an individual (Ball, 1997). It is, therefore, indispensable for everyone to have significant concerns in managing careers to streamline his life professionally. The other reason for managing careers is to help attain the overall objectives and goals in life set at an early stage. Management of the career as helps in development of a perfect strategy, which will help attain the goals in life. Additionally, it helps in coming up with specific means including procedures, policies, rules, and activities, which are of value in attaining the goals in life be it in the profession or the employment (Greenhaus, Callanan & Godshalh, 2000). Overall, managing careers is excellent in helping with systematic evaluation particularly of progress toward the overall achievement of the goals or objectives; therefore, helping modify the strategies and avoid straying in set goals.
For people who do not manage their careers, they undergo a lot of stress in life. Without active management of careers, instability hails in mostly because the person shifts from one career to another in life stages. This includes instability in employment or the professional life (Greenhaus, Callanan & Godshalh, 2000). On the other hand, the person experiences lag in developing a career because of the diversified progression of many careers. Literally, not actively managing careers leads an individual most likely to be a failure in life because of lack of specialization. That is why everyone should actively plan and manage their careers for a better future (Ball, 1997).
2. Using Levinson's model as a framework, in what stage of adult life development do you see yourself? What concerns are uppermost in your mind at this time? Are these concerns consistent with Levinson's model?
Levinson's model explains the progression in life in a distinct way. In mid 1977, Daniel Levinson was behind the construction of a model of a man’s life (Greenhaus, Callanan & Godshalh, 2000). His developmental theory considerably consists of universal phases or stages extending from the infancy state up until the elderly state (Thomas & Merriam, 2005). Levinson's life structure concept (the socio-cultural world of men, their participation in various aspects of themselves) particularly is the key component in his theory. There are two principal concepts particularly in Levinson's model, which include the stable period as well as the transitional period all in the individual development (Greenhaus, Callanan & Godshalh, 2000). Additionally, Levinson's model has five main stages. They include pre-adulthood stage between the age of 0 to 22, second is the early adulthood stage between the age of 17 and 45, thirds is the middle adult stage between age 40 and 65, fourth is the late adulthood stage between age 60 and 85 and lastly is the late adult stage between age 80 plus. The stage that a person stage in adult life development sees him or herself is the second stage that would be a stable period particularly because it mainly marks the time where the specific adult picks a role, establishes goals and builds an individual life structure. The stage mainly provides the young adult ideally with any roles as well as choices for the individual future. What is in the individual's mind at this time is mainly the future career, the family life as well as the status (Greenhaus, Callanan & Godshalh, 2000). These concerns are consistent with Levinson's model because it is a stage after one move from confusion in the role-play and wants to have a stable life. At this age, the individual wants to achieve independence and, therefore, has to see him or herself for this to happen and in pursuit of a greater and stable life.
3. Why is an understanding of a preferred work environment so critical to effective job search and organizational entry? What does a job candidate risk if he or she lacks self-insight in this area?
A working environment generally is an individual’s place of work. It is where he or she relates with other people. In this case, whatever goes around the working environment has to affect the individual either directly or indirectly. It is, therefore, critical to understand the working environment for a stable working process (Greenhaus, Callanan & Godshalh, 2000). Understanding the working environment includes understanding the people in that environment. That is why to succeed in effective job search and organizational entry; one must know how to relate with the people around to avoid conflicts that make working difficult. On the same note, understanding the preferred work environment involves having the knowledge and skills of the practices going on in the working environment. Without adequate skills of the practice, one cannot qualify as the candidate for the job, therefore, fails in job search. Mostly, employers look out for pertinent issues as such and want someone who understands the particular working environment in detail for easy orientation and quick catch up of the practices. On the same note, understanding of the preferred work environment will help once one enters the work environment because it eases the coping of the environment and a less stressful transition (Greenhaus, Callanan & Godshalh, 2000). A job candidate risks a lot if he or she lacks self-insight in this area of the working environment. This is because he or she risks committing elementary mistakes that could cost him or her job. He risks severe dangers and compromises his or her development in that particular working environment (Greenhaus, Callanan & Godshalh, 2000). On the same note, in that area, there are people working around, not understanding those means that one will have a difficult time in his or her work and the spirit of teamwork, essential for development dies down. In simple terms, a job candidate risks failing an interview for not understanding a particular working environment (Moos, 1994).
4. Do you believe that the occupational choices of women and minorities are severely constrained by external barriers? Do women face similar issues or different issues in choosing an occupation than people of color?
Occupational choice is truly gender sensitive from the earlier days up to the new century. There is a revered element of truth that occupational choices of women and minorities are severely constrained by external barrier. Occupational choice, which includes a career choice, vocational choice or a job selection, is an area where psychological expertise are employed for a particular use (Greenhaus, Callanan & Godshalh, 2000). Women and minorities have many challenges when they are on the verge of making such choices. These are the external barriers coming their way when making the choices.
Stereotypes are some of the external factors that contribute heavily to influences of choice of occupations by women. These stereotypes assert that there are some male dominated occupations that women are, sidelined. On the same note, couture as external factors sets some traditionally feminine occupations and male occupations bringing in an impact in the choice of occupations. This divides a class of women meaningfully and strains them for instance to household occupations while many of the occupations are left for men. The stereotypes in other words strain the women as well as minorities decisions as to what occupations are legible for their taking instead of providing them with the freedom to choose from any occupation (Greenhaus, Callanan & Godshalh, 2000). There is also severe constrain on the side of women making their choices of occupations owing to other factors for instance selecting feminine occupations because of familial influence. They follow their peers and do not want to look different from others. Additionally, work experience is a vital constrain because some women and minorities are not well endowed with experience of particular tasks because they were not given a chance to acquire the same.
Finally, women and minorities are constrained in choosing occupations because they lack a role model to follow on the same (Greenhaus, Callanan & Godshalh, 2000). Since the women of the early ages followed the stereotypic beliefs and never engaged in such occupations, the same happens and the current woman follows suite.