In today’s economy, organizations are aiming at growing and surviving. In order to attain these goals and objectives, it is essential for such organizations to select their employees carefully. Organizations which appreciate the competitive edge offered by competent persons should take the extreme care in selecting their employees (Noe et al. 175). Employee selection is the process in which the right people are put on the right job. The procedure involves interviewing and evaluating individuals for particular jobs and selecting a person for employment on the basis of specific criteria (Noe et al. 176). It is a process of matching organizational needs with qualifications, knowledge, abilities and skills of individuals. Efficient selection of the staffs can only be carried out if there is efficient matching. It is apparent that companies will obtain quality performance of the staffs by selecting the most proficient person for the required job and furthermore, a company will experience less problems linked with employee turnover and absenteeism and will also save money and time (Anderson et al. pp. 487-501). However, employee selection is deemed to be a negative procedure that involves the rejection of unsuitable candidates. Organizations are obliged to put into consideration various employment laws including anti-discrimination laws during employee selection (Gatewood &Field 21). This paper will focus on the employee selection and in particular, the major issue linked with the selection process.
Steps of the Employee Selection Process
- The first step during employee selection is preliminary or screening interviews. During this step, persons who had been recruited, but do not meet the lowest eligibility standards put down by the company are eliminated. During the preliminary interview, such factors as family and academic background, competencies, skills and interests of a person are examined. Moreover, candidates are offered company briefs and the job profile. Furthermore, candidates are assessed on how well they are acquainted with the company (Noe et al. 165).
- Individuals who pass the screening interview are necessitated to fill an application blank. This includes such information as age, qualifications and experience. In addition, persons are required to explain their grounds for leaving previous employment (Gatewood &Feild 21).
- During the selection process, different written tests including intelligence test, aptitude tests, personality and reasoning tests are used. Potential candidates are objectively assessed using these tests.
- Employment interview is the next step and it encompasses one on the interaction between the potential candidate and the interviewer. To ensure better results, an honest communication between these persons is encouraged. Although, such an interview is used to find out whether the person is suited for the job, the competencies and skills of a person cannot however be judged.
- Medical examinations are carried out to make certain physical fitness of the prospective staff. This is essential as it is deemed to reduce the chances of staff absenteeism. The last step is issuing appointment letter to the selected candidate (Anderson et al. pp. 487-501).
Key Issues Linked To Employment Selection
Employment selection is not a complicated process. Nevertheless, there are various issues linked to the selection process. Such issues include legal ramifications in case the employment selection is carried out incorrectly according to the federal law. Various laws including Americans with Disability Act, the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission govern employee hiring and selection. According to National Archives Website, the Federal law protects certain persons from discrimination during selection. Such factors as national origin, gender, race, religion, color, veteran status or pregnancy should not be considered by employers while deciding to hire an individual for a job. The Civil Rights Act 1964 protects these federally protected individuals and guarantees them employment rights. It is against the federal law to deny these persons a position in the organization if qualified. However, it is not necessitated that applicants in these classes be selected exclusively based on this criterion. This has reduced discrimination based on these factors in job selection. Studies have revealed that interview screening has considerable adverse effects against minority applicants. For instance, the MIT’s Sendhil Mullainathan and the University of Chicago’s Marianne Bertrand applied for one thousand and three hundred jobs with their resumes which either made use of statistically white or black names (Stang Decision Systems, par. 5).
According to the study, black applicants had to send out fifty percent more resumes for each interview callback than the whites. This means that a qualified black applicant was required to send out fifteen resumes for each interview invitation compared to ten resumes for white applicants. In addition, organizations which claimed to be equal opportunity employers did not or were no more probable to offer a chance to the black applicant compared to the organizations which did not put emphasis on equal opportunity (Stang Decision Systems, par. 5). In order to eliminate this bias, the pre-screening techniques employed by organizations should be in such a way that they do not consider individuals’ names whilst evaluating applicants (Stang Decision Systems, par. 5).
With the rapid growth in technology, individuals are able to submit their applications to an organization recruiting box electronically (Chan 220-223). Furthermore, most human resource departments receive many resumes currently than ever before. This is a major issue and in fact scholars argue that to ensure an efficient employee selection method, this requires changes. Resume screening is a labour and time intensive procedure for the hiring company. Evaluating numerous resumes carefully necessitates a considerable level of human attention, which in most circumstances most organizations are not able to provide. Therefore, the employment selection process may turn out to be one of selective attention (Stang Decision Systems 2011, par. 1). That is, it may involve the interviewers only evaluating resumes from persons with some skills or qualifications for the said job. Apparently, this procedure is not optimal as certain applicants are denied the position for reasons not linked to their qualifications. This can greatly influence the quality of applicant pools.Furthermore, the law permits for exceptions to persons federally protected in some instances. For instance, if a member of a particular class is necessitated to carry out a task, without exception, then in some circumstances it is legal to eliminate others due to their class. This is referred to as bona fide occupational qualification. Various classes involved with bona fide occupational qualification encompass sex, religion, age and national origin. Some examples of exceptions permitted by law encompass all-female prisons which are willing to select and hire female prison guards, an airline requiring its pilots to retire at 60 years due to the concerns linked with eyesight, or an Italian restaurant wishing to hire an Italian chef to sustain authenticity (Stang Decision Systems, par. 5).
Furthermore, the evaluation procedure is also believed to be a subjective art which lacks sufficient science to support it. According to the research, evaluators are faced with a hard time trying to apply a set of reliable standards over various persons or they constantly employ standards which are not applicable to future job success (Stang Decision Systems 2011, par. 2; Lievens et al. 580-601). Most organizations have tried to eliminate these predicaments through the development of precise assessment criteria or offering screeners with numerous kinds of rater error training (Stang Decision Systems, par. 2).
However, due to the fact that the data acquired form the resumes is extremely unstructured, substantial judgment is necessitated whilst making evaluations even from experienced and highly trained screeners. Regrettably, this results in prediction errors and biases which generally lessen screening accuracy. Moreover, this issue is made complex when multiple screeners are employed to assess resumes for similar position. In addition, poor inter-rater dependability amongst raters results in further evaluation inconsistency.
Besides, efficiently and accurately quantifying candidates information in a manner that enables for a rank ordering of applicants based on their probability of job success is very difficult or otherwise impossible (Wilk &Cappelli 103-104). It is apparent that information obtained from resumes merely permits for a qualitative assessment which necessitates a considerable inferential leap so that the available data can be merged to a general forecast of future success (Hough and Oswald 632). For instance, assume you are assessing two applicants for a position which necessitates a specific level of education and experience. Both of the applicants have the minimum qualifications of the job, nevertheless, applicant X is perceived to have a stronger work experience compared to applicant Y. On the other hand, applicant Y is perceived to have a better educational background that matches the qualifications for the job. In this case, how can these two applicants be compared? To ensure efficiency, a procedure which carefully weighs such information is necessitated, otherwise, the screeners will have a major task in making such a judgment. As a result, it lessens the capacity of an organization to generate fine-grained distinctions between applicants who have basic requirements and qualifications for a particular position (Ployhart and Schneider 95-140). Furthermore, the fact that resumes are not measured quantitatively or scored makes it hard to track forecasts to offer resume screeners with responses on their assessments, and without such responses, it is not easy for organizations to change and advance their hiring processes persistently (Wilk &Cappelli 103-104).
For the past twenty years, researchers and human resource professional have been interested in assessment instruments and psychological tests which tap potential employee interpersonal style, personality and reaction to stress circumstances. Nevertheless, there have been current concerns on the probable threat of unscientific claims regarding employee selection techniques which involve personality testing and online testing for employee selection purposes (Anderson et al. 25). Simultaneously, and highly founded on individual acceptance on the use of technological applications and the internet, both private and public organizations encompassing governmental organizations are considering the use of traditional employee selection processes (Mooney 1). However, various scholars put forth that online selection organizations are not regulated. Moreover, the majority of individual job-fit tests have not yet been standardized and furthermore, they lack norms and in addition, developers have not offered prognostic validity information on selection measures (Bates 5). Certainly, these issues, regarding employee testing on the Global Web have attracted the interest of thorough research efforts by global scholars. In this extremely competitive environment, organizations have at their disposal a cost effective, sound framework, convenient and speedy system to meet their employee selection requirements. These systems, however, have their own challenges and in fact they are not preferred by most organizations. Studies have revealed that most organizations prefer traditional methods of employee selection which includes structured interviews, general IQ, workbook samples, integrity, official transcript and references amongst others (Wilk &Cappel 2). These selection methods although deemed to be more efficient compared to online selection, they have their own disadvantages. For instance, traditional selection processes are time consuming and furthermore, use a lot of company money and resources. Furthermore, the production process of the company comes to a standstill during the employment selection process.
It is apparent from the above assessment that employment selection process is not a simple task. Human resource managers have the toughest role of selecting the best employees for the advertised job from a wide range of applicants. Employment selection is not only time and labour intensive but it is also linked with other issues which require to be dealt with to make certain that organizations hirethe best candidate for the said job. In fact, employee selection is deemed to be a negative procedure that involves the rejection of unsuitable candidates. Some of the issues as discussed which are linked with employment selection encompass discrimination based on age, color, religion gender, and race amongst others. In most organizations, this is a major problem during employee selection (Wilk &Cappelli 103-104). However, in the United States, the Federal law protects such classes of people from discrimination during selection. In fact, organizations are obliged to put into consideration various employment laws including anti-discrimination laws during employee selection. Other issues linked with employment selection include the use of ineffective screening procedures, it is time consuming and difficult for the evaluators to screen the best qualified applicants, efficiently and accurately quantifying candidates information in a manner that enables for a rank ordering of applicants based on their probability of job success to be very difficult or otherwise impossible, and the use of traditional employee selection processes by organizations. Therefore, in order to ensure efficiency in the employment selection process, organizations should make use of the modern technology and also ensure that their screening techniques are very efficient in order to select the best candidate for the job who will also bring about future success.