This paper seeks to review an article, an employment systems approach to turnover: Human resources practices, quits, dismissals, and performance. This article basically aimed at examining the link between the various approaches applied in employment systems and quits, customer service and dismissal. Data was obtained from the cross-sectional and longitudinal surveys, which were basically representatives of the call centre establishments nationally. The study found out that the precursors and the outcomes of dismissals and quits are rather similar. However, this paper will provide a critique of this article and some of the key issues that will be addressed include the sample size, data collection and analysis, along with the benefits of triangulation.
There are various questions that have been addressed by the study. It worth noting that this study aims at examining if a link exists between dismissals and quits, as well as with the three elements of the employment systems (Batt & Colvin 2011). To help understand the key reasons as to why individuals choose to quit their jobs, the study examined various research questions, which management practices increase turnover? How much turnover is harmful or beneficial, along with identifying the conditions and why? Nonetheless, these questions are original and significant, considering the fact that they are relevant to the study topic. Furthermore, the questions have acted as a guide to the researcher in generating the information required by the study.
This study is based on an alternative view of the internal labour market theory that looks at how most of the employers institute various internal administrative regulations in order to enhance their goals (McElroy et al. 2001). In this case, quits and dismissals are looked at as related incidents with similar antecedents, derived from the kind of employment system applied by the employer. It worth noting that there exists an assumption quits and dismissals contain different antecedents, considering the fact that most of the existing studies have highlighted mixed results.
Sample size, data collection and analysis
Data was basically obtained from a random survey of the call centres within the telecommunications industry nationally, primarily based on the Dun and Bradstreet listing of establishment, 1998, together with a random survey conducted on all the call centres within all industries in 2003. The sample size was basically limited to only the organizations offering the same types of services (Foster, 1997). The random sample of subscribers, identified as the general managers or directors of their centres were stratified by the industry in which they served. However, the response rate of about 68 percent representing the matched cases provided a longitudinal sample of the about 97 centres. The response rate can be worked with considering the fact that it provided a good sample from which data could be collected (Dzurec & Abraham, 1993). The data collected was then analyzed through generalizations.
However, the best method that can be applied in order to collect the data is triangulation strategies, as the random survey often results in large samples, hence concluding in more generalizations (Veronica, 2001). Triangulation entails the application of more than two data collection procedures, basically from the same design method. However, it is important that the reason as to why the strategy being used is well articulated, considering the ways through which they might enhance the research study. To get the benefit of triangulation however, it is important that its contribution to the understanding of the observable fact is taken into significant consideration (Veronica, 2001). Nonetheless, it is worth noting that the application of the triangulation strategies does not build up on the flawed results (Veronica, 2001). However, limiting the sample to only those organizations offering similar services helps in enhancing comparability, while minimizing irrelevant sources of measurement and variation error (Goodwin & Goodwin, 1984).
Results and authors contribution to knowledge
The results of the study highlight that the precursors and the outcomes of both dismissals and quits are rather similar. The study further indicates that prolonged investments and inducements, as well as high-involvement work organization are often linked to considerably lower dismissal and quit rates (Batt and Colvin, 2011). On the contrary, as established by the study, short-range performance-enhancing prospects are often associated with considerably higher dismissal and quit rates. It was also established that establishments recording higher dismissal and quit rates recorded reduced customer service. It is quite apparent that the study results have helped in answering the research questions (McElroy et al. 2001). The information generated has provided the information that was much needed by this study. For instance, one of the research questions aimed at identifying some of the management practices that are associated with increased turnover, one of the key areas that have been clearly articulated in the results of this study. However, it is worth noting that the author has significantly contributed to the body of knowledge with regard to this field of study. As opposed to the previous studies that have often showed mixed result, the author has indicated significant similarities among the precursors and the outcomes of the dismissals and quits, using supportive evidences (Batt and Colvin, 2011). The author has also identified some of the management practices that are likely to result in dismissal and quits, which can help organizations improve their practices considering the fact that quits and dismissals contain significant negative impacts to the organizations, for instance, reduced customer service.
Limitations of the study
This study encountered several limitations. The first challenge was to identify the 2003 population of the call centres considering the fact that the official data on the call centres was missing. A subscription list of the Call Center Magazine had to be therefore applied (Batt &Colvin 2011). The other challenge is that the interpreter reliability cannot be checked considering the fact that data was primarily based on the reports that were obtained from the general manager of the establishments that were surveyed (Donaghue & Castle, 2006).
This study has established that the antecedents of quits and dismissals are rather similar. Despite the few limitations that have been highlighted above, however, it is quite apparent that the research questions have well been answered from the findings. Nonetheless, further research should been directed at examining these links with more rigor and precision among other industries and organizational contexts.