Despite the progress that was evident during the Porfiriato regime, there were social consequences that made the development uneven. The economy of Mexico grew by 2.6 percent annually. The per capita income had also improved significantly to the levels seen in the 1820s. The aspect of neocolonialism played a key role in shaping the economy with the majority of financial assets remaining under the control of the foreign investors. The local workers with skilled and unskilled powers were not readily taken into the work force. The development of the country was lopsided as most of the peasants’ assets were under the control of the government that used its power to appropriate land. The argument behind the actions of foreign companies misappropriating land was due to the 1883 land law aimed at promoting foreign investments. The foreign companies controlled the Mexican economy as they held over 54.3 million hectares of land, and the poor people had no choice but to offer their labor to those with productive lands. The middle and upper classes that came up during this time adapted the European way of living and did not use the products made in their country. The country was being exploited by the foreign countries under the pretense of helping to develop its economy (Meade, 2010). The inconsistent economic growth was seen as people who benefited from the developing economy were those in the urban areas being majorly the upper and middle class of the society. The peasants where left in the rural areas where they had to work for the rich landowners. The other problem of the country’s economy was its dependence on agriculture as its sole source of income.
The Constitution of 1917
The Mexican constitution that came into existence in February 1917 is one of the world’s first socialist constitutions. The constitution came into effect at a time when the Mexicans needed something to help them with the problems they were facing. The constitution addressed the issues of land ownership and neo-colonialism providing that the foreigners holding any land be given restrictions that reduced their power over the locals. The constitution also stated that the country’s natural resources were entirely under the control of the Mexican government. The constitution, in the article 27, provided that the government had the power to take over the private lands and distribute them to the public. This was a response to the uneven distribution of income where the rich were becoming richer and the poor becoming poorer (Beezley, 2011). The constitution took into consideration the plight of the peasants and provided them with social rights that would help them fight for fair payments. In the article 123, the constitution granted equal rights to all citizens and proclaimed the right to equal treatment and fair wages despite one’s race and gender. The issue of democracy was handled in chapter one, two and four of the constitution where the Mexicans had the first priority. The constitution in the article 30 provided the Mexicans with the right to vote and exercise their rights as citizens of Mexico. The Mexicans were to elect the leaders of their choice by participating in elections.
The Mexican revolution was one of the most significant events in the Latin American history. The working class fought to have their rights taken into consideration. The revolution that took place between 1910 and 1917 was a unique chapter in the history of the country, and it lasted for nearly a decade. The revolution was caused by unequal treatment and lack of democracy in the work places. The revolution in Mexico was aimed at fighting for the rights of the peasants who were controlled by the few who were wealthy. The other revolutions in Colombia and Peru had their main reasons in benefiting from the agrarian revolution. The formation of rebel groups was fired by unequal distribution of income where the urban centers were getting more money, and the rural dwellers were lagging behind in economic development. The working classes comprised majorly people of particular races, gender and ethnicities. This is what caused the revolutions in Peru and Colombia. The working class turned to anarchism because of their dissatisfaction with the political system and the way of life they had to carry (Meade, 2010).
Zapatista Revolutionary Group
The Zapatista is a revolutionary group in Mexico formed in the early 1990s. The group takes its name from the agrarian revolutionist Zapata Emiliano who led the Liberation Army in South Mexico during the revolution. The group declared war in Mexico; however, they have never applied any military force in its defense. The group believes that it is continuing the work of their namesake who fought for liberation of the Mexican people. The EZLN group does not use weapons in their war, but uses technology to pass their message to people from different parts of the world. Their namesake used the same tactic because he tried as much as possible to avoid direct confrontation and instead used guerilla tactics. The group has the same purpose as their namesake since their aim is to reduce the increasing gap between the rich and the poor. The two groups believe in equality and make sure that the indigenous people hold positions in political groups to help them spread their message. The original Zapatista group has used force in their initial operations, but the counter of the military forced them to change their approach. Now, the only weapon of the revolutionaries is the application of technology to deliver their message. However, they both have similar goals, to fight for the rights of the Mexican indigenous population. The modern Zapatista recruits the locals to join the group, and Emiliano used the same tactic to fight for justice.