Immigration from Bangladeshi increased in 1971 due to the gain of independence. Many East Bengalis migrated to the U.S in order to avoid political harassment and religious discrimination. Since 1971, immigration from Bangladeshi to the U.S increased on the annual basis. The first waves of the migration consisted of the well educated and affluent immigrants. The migration was composed of the younger men, who experienced economic and political problems in Bangladeshi. Additionally, the Indians migrated from their land and settled in many areas in the U.S. By the year 1970, about 51,000 foreigners from India were recorded in the U.S. Due to the industrial growth in the States, many of the Indians and Bangladeshis migrated there. This was done for the purpose of looking for greener pastures and better financial support. Moreover, the U.S provided financial and emotional support to all citizens, hence attracted many migrants to move from Bangladesh.
The Indians migrated to the U.S because of the provided opportunities in Canada and the U.S (Thapan, 2005). This happened because the government of Canada and the U.S provided all citizens with financial, emotional and mental support. During the Boxer Rebellion in India, they came into close association with other nationalities who had worked in America; thus they gave a clear picture of economic opportunities in the U.S. Many opportunities seemed attractive to immigrants, especially the industrial and agricultural prospect that provided better employment terms to both skilled and unskilled people. Thus, many of the Indians were influenced by these opportunities, causing many young men to make a decision of migrating to the U.S.
The immigration processes from Bangladeshi to the U.S were of two types. The first one was the minority member who fled to America because of political harassment, and the second one was due to religious discrimination. Religion-related migration was comprised especially of the Muslims, who were seeking the economic opportunities.. As a negative factor, human trafficking increased, affecting particularly women and young children, who were taken for commercial and labor exploitation consecutively (Foner, 2009). The frequent natural disasters such as floods, droughts, riverbank explosion and other environmental factors further necessitated their migration to the U.S.
The immigration of the Bangladeshis and the Indians to the U.S contributed to different negative effects on the environment where they settled in. The first one is resource scarcity because of the increased population, thus increased completion for the available scarce resources. because the explanation for this would be that the number of the U.S immigrants increased, leading to bigger scarcity of resources. Another effect is wage declining because of cheap labor. The wage declined because of the availability of cheap labor working in the agricultural fields and industrial sectors. The increase of labor supply in the free labor market affected the wage payment that declined. This forced the state government to introduce wage payment policies in order to avoid employees from exploiting their employers. Moreover, the increased population contributed to unemployment, which started to be experienced as a result of overpopulation.
The migration process affects the traditional beliefs and values of people in different ways. First, the Bangladeshis tried to maintain their ethnic enclaves but due to several groups of people, who migrated to the U.S, assimilation and acculturation occurred. Most of the Bengalis were Muslim who migrated to the U.S, and they were sometimes stereotyped into their larger religious society. Additionally, most of people across the East Asia were speaking the Bengali language, which was a part of their cultural identity. Although both groups tried to maintain the pride of their language, they were forced to speak English language. Most of them were acculturated and assimilatedthat affected their traditional beliefs and values.
Acculturation is the process through which people’s attitudes and behaviors are modified. This is done through coming to close contact or associating with other cultures. It is the element through which two cultures mingle through a mutual influence. Acculturation explains the process by which cultural practices and psychological changes take place in more than one culture through interaction process. The acculturation process starts when there is the giving and the receiving culture. According to Berry (1997), acculturation is a cross-cultural process that involves the long-term psychological changes depending on the social and personal development of the origin of society. Berry demonstrates fundamental links between the cultural contexts, behavior development of individuals in a particular society of origin. He attempts to establish the relationship of a particular culture with another culture.