This chapter describes how America was gradually industrialized and urbanized. Dreadful living conditions of the black Americans and the dehumanizing state of women is also very evident. Cities that were known as slums started emerging slowly and soon most of the immigrants settled there. However, they were not safe as they were characterized by high crime rates, corruption, suicides, and suffered from severe pollution; all this was hazardous for human survival. Basically, due to the sudden effects of urbanization and industrialization, the lifestyle of most Americans changed. In addition, it marked as the beginning of various reforms in America. These reforms were initiated by renowned reformers who made history from that (Geoffrey 233).
Life was becoming unbearable and some felt that change was indispensable. For instance, the gap between the rich and the poor was very wide, such that the rich got richer and the poor became poorer. The blacks were denied from accessing the education facilities of the whites, they had their own learning institutions separate from those of the Americans. The plight of women needed to be addressed, so that the society could stop discriminating them. Quality education was really emphasized and the entire system of education needed an overhaul. Most people realized that education was very vital and hence advocated for amendment of the curriculum. Higher learning institutions began to flourish, and a lot of emphasis was on practical subjects. However, the blacks and the whites had separate but similar learning systems, thus approving ethnic discrimination (Geoffrey 243).
By the end of 1900 there were a lot of significant changes that had occurred. The education sector had really improved due to the establishment of better learning institutions that were also well equipped with adequate learning materials. The way of life for most Americans had really transformed, they were breaking loose from their traditions and easily incorporated new ways. Roles in the family also changed whereby women accessed education enabling them to seek paid employment. Their life as house wives was fading away and their demeaning status in the society was slowly changing as they were now more recognized in the society (Geoffrey 303).