The life of the plain Indians was characterized by the subsistence farming and animal rearing. The Indians also traded much with white Americans so far, which had drawn many white traders to the region used for garments trading. The Indians and the mountain men used to hunt for animals that developed fur market and made it possible to trade with the Americans. They also depended on the whites who had adopted the trapping and hunting life because of fur popularity.
This trade relationship between the Indians and the whites played a major role in exploration of the Indians land. It affected the native population as the information about land fertility reached the Americans prompting them to migrate westward in search for farming land, and consequently, forcing the natives to abandon their lands. The natives lost their land to Americans who forcefully occupied these territories (Keene, 2010).
The natives were put in reservations to be removed from the white farmers’ way willing to take their lands, and due to the great wish of some people to occupy natives’ land they began an extermination of the natives. Therefore the policy of reservation was implemented to preserve natives from the heritage, though they virtually owned everything but in reality nothing. Black Hawk and John Horse came to reveal their perspectives and protected their land from being taken. It highly increased the number of problems and difficulties they had encountered before. The land was ceded to the Americans for as much as one thousand dollars yearly according to a treaty signed between the two sides (Keene, 2010).
Catlin and some missioners had similar opinions about this situation. They think that Americans began conflicts and started the war only to take natives’ lands and extend farming lands for new settlers. Natives’ lives were totally changed by 1865. Most of them did not have lands for farming and animal rearing. They lived in areas which were not conducive to live in.