In a bombing incident, there are types of evidence that are common. Therefore, when evidence is collected, experts mainly deal with specific evidence. In a bombing incident, the following evidence may be found; timer fragments, chemical chips, undetonated bombs, and secondary explosives. Different methods are applied to search for evidence in an explosion scene depending on the intensity of the explosion. Some of the methods require the use of advanced machines to collect evidence (Dutelle 2011). The most common method used to search for secondary and active explosive devices is the use of the sniffer dogs. The sniffer dogs may be used to locate the explosive devices that are still active in the bombing scene. In addition, explosive detectors are used if it is not suitable to use sniffer dogs to locate the explosive devices. To collect evidence that is in chemical form, the advanced methods such as the scanning of electron microscopy and X-ray Energy-Dispersive Spectroscopy are used. Either these types of methods are applied at the scene of bombing, or they are conducted in a laboratory (Fish, Miller & Braswell, 2011).
There are different tools and equipment used to collect evidence in a bomb incident depending on the method used. Possessing the right tools and equipment is extremely crucial. Investigators have to have prior preparation before an assignment because every explosion site has its own set of challenges. The tools or equipment used serve two main purposes, which are to collect evidence to determine the cause and to preserve the evidence collected. The purpose of this is that the evidence may be used later, for example, during court proceedings.
The following is some of the safety equipment and tools used in a bomb scene: biohazard materials, first aid kit, safety glasses, protective shoes, kneepads, helmets, respiratory equipment like particle masks, personnel support items like food and water, and protective wear like disposable suits (Dutelle 2011),
The crime scene tools required include barrier tape or perimeter rope, batteries, binoculars, communications equipment, evidence collection kits, flares, flashlights, generators, hand tools, lighting, auxiliary, tarps/tents, thermometers, large trashcans, and tweezers/forceps.
The equipment required to document a scene include compasses, computer and computer-aided design (CAD) program, drawing equipment, consent-to-search forms, logs, tape recorders, photographic equipment, and measuring equipment.
In order to collect evidence effectively, the following equipment is used: new sealable bags, boxes, and cans that are particularly valuable. This is because they keep evidence uncontaminated. Brushes, brooms, swabbing kits, rakes, spades, shovels, and sifters help to gather the evidence collectively. Magnets are also used to collect trace metal elements that may be at the scene (Dutelle, 2011)
Some explosion scenes require specialized equipment. In this case, aerial survey equipment can be helpful to take photos of the scene. Chemical test kits and trace detectors are also vital to distinguish the chemicals used to create the explosive device. In the case of a collapsed building, the construction equipment is necessary to lift debris. A GPS is also crucial to help determine the location of the explosion. Finally, trace explosive detectors are necessary to ensure there are no explosive devices still active (Hess & Orthmann, 2010).
A barrier tape is vital in a bomb scene to prevent other people from tampering with evidence found at the bomb scene. It can be spread about in the area of the scene; therefore, the analyst is able to work on the scene without disturbance. It is also used to ensure that the scene is not contaminated. A bomb scene could be dangerous since, after the explosion, there may be debris of the explosive device, which can be harmful to the public. They can also cause some other explosion that may cause other unnecessary damages to both the analyst and the public.
During the assessment of a bomb scene, it is necessary to document details for legal purposes. Various cameras, videos, and tripods are used to document the proceedings that may be used as evidence during a court proceeding (Fisher, 1991).
To get evidence in a bombing, a shovel may be beneficial since it is used to dig through the debris in order to find evidence. Most of the time evidence is buried under thick debris. Therefore, the use of sifters and screen helps to determine evidence.
There are occasions when in a bomb scene, explosive devices may not go off because of their explosive nature. Therefore, an explosive detector is used to detect an explosive device that is still active. An explosive detector is helpful since it ensures the investigators and the public are safe. After the explosive device is collected, it is used as evidence and may perhaps have fingerprints that are used to get the culprit (Hess & Orthmann, 2010).
During the whole procedure of collecting evidence and analyzing the area of the scene, other agencies are used to help to analyze what may be related to the explosion incident. Some of the agencies such as the police, assistance licensed engineers, handpicked consultants, and forensic experts are combined to analyze the evidence collected from the scene.