A crime is a social injustice perpetrated by a member of a community or a group of people with an intention to cause death or fulfill the ritual bounding of the community without the right articulation of the law stipulated. When one breaks the law intentionally or unintentionally, then this is automatically a felony. Crimes always have bad consequences causing death if not well watched. The prevalence of crime rates has been on the rise especially among men. The margin of violent crime rates for men is increasing. Men are more daring and often obliged to the spirit of ignorance to the consequences. Men are born with a mind that contributes to the consequences of crime making the uptake an easy task. Women still hold the setback of society and are always unwilling to take up criminal activities. The society exposes the boy child to a freedom at an early age making him vulnerable to scenes of crime. The economic principles define the aspects of criminal justice and motivations underlying criminal activities. In economics of crime, the application of the economist’s tool to examine the cost of social injustices believed to be the definition of a crime. Economics of crime elucidates the major crime prevention tactics and the public policies aimed at dealing with crime. Criminal activities include prostitution, rape, drug abuse, murder and bribe, just to give a few. The procession is endless but starts with acquaintance to crime as the first step in executing the vice. Once one is acquainted to a crime then the next probable action is its execution, which has dire consequences. Once this criminology ideology is in one’s mind, it isn’t easy to get rid of it. Economic crime acts in this sense to avert the extent to which the crime can be more deplorable.
This essay examines the economics of crime, the basic situations of crime, the economic crime in the USA, and the general crimes witnessed more often like prostitution, drugs, gangs and the mob, and guns. It also explores the fundamental trends in crime taking into consideratio sexes, age and time.
Masciandaro asserts that economics of crime is the economic evaluation of criminal behavior versus the criminal law (82). It articulates the understanding of effects that deter criminology and rationalize the responses of the criminal to subvert the economic harm of the vice by reviving him or her to a virtue-oriented person. It gives the lawmaker a chance to see the fruits of the law. The economics of crime tries to assess how profitable it might look to uphold or shun away from crime, for instance, it is more economical to jail a murderer than it is to live up with the person despite the fact that he is a born fade member of the society (Sjögren and Skogh 231).
Crime continues to be a part of the society, increasing with the sophistication of technology. Non-fatal firearm related crime has increased in the USA since 1993. This is essentially because of fear of penalty on firearm related crimes, which are on a downward trend. It is conventional that low economic scales escalate the rates of crime, but in the USA, the current downturn shows that the crime rate has increased as the unemployment rate falls. This is attributed to good policing strategies, the legalization of abortion, which helps to get rid of children born to teenage mothers who are vulnerable to commit crime (Kofele-Kale, 121). The warning of the crack market associated violence keeps more criminals out of the streets, although it takes tremendous costs. The nature of a black president in power has also contributed to decline of blacks engaging in crimes, in the United States. This is according to a national consortium on violence and research by Al Blumstein, a criminologist. A black president has inspired more young black men to stop committing crimes. The black were the jailbirds in the USA as they, not having access to schools, hovered the streets in search of a daily living.
On the other hand, prostitution is a vice that involves sexual desires for economic gains. This is a vice perpetrated by both sexes since he who gives money in exchange for sex is a prostitute. She who gives sex in exchange of material goods is also a prostitute. Prostitution in the United States of America is illegal in 49 out of 50 states and is classifiable as a misdemeanor. It is essentially the power of every state to determine the legality of prostitution. Nevada is the only state where prostitution is legal. As a crime, prostitution comprises of street, brothel, and escort prostitution. Street prostitution is illegal throughout the United States. It is rampant in areas clustered for solicitation. It is on designated areas of the city where prostitutes lay traps as vendors to fetch money (Gallant 142). Escort prostitution is where the male escorts command less on the hours spent than their female counterparts. Agencies run this business on a bodywork format aimed at achieving pornographic materials. Brothel prostitution is illegal everywhere in the United States. The Federal Government prosecutes prostitution offences in a move to curb prostitution. This act is more prevalent among youthful females who are out of the marriage bracket either by choice or by fate. The entire business is illegal, as it is an infringement to the social well being of the body and an abuse to sex, which has ill-fated consequences including unwanted pregnancies, contraction of STDs and moral decay.
Drugs are substances that alter the normal functioning of the body. Drug abuse is an intake of a drug without the prescription of a health physician. The commonly trafficked and used drugs in the USA are opium, heroin, and cocaine. The government has put in efforts to regulate consumption and use of drugs. Drug taking is illegal, hence, a crime while the effects of the drug, which alters the sound judgment of the person might also lead one into a crime. Despite the tough drug laws, the US is still the highest drug user in the world. America has the highest level of cocaine use in the world by the World Health Report. Gender and socioeconomic factors contribute towards the use of drugs as more of the male gender than the female tame the vice. Consequently, the young age condones the vice as compared to the elderly (Sjögren and Skogh, 54). There exists the phenomenon that drug abuse is common in affluent countries. Above all, the US has the biggest punitive strategies in its laws against drug offenders.
Gangs and the mob form a coherent part of criminology. A gang is an organized national, local or international grouping of centralized entrepreneurs who are essentially criminals. The major character that defines this group is performance of forced businesses and dragging of innocent victims into scenes of looting and robbery. A gang is always aware of the eventuality of its activities. It carries out the activities of planning and executing crime in an organized manner knowing that the consequences are fatal. Every member of the gang protects the life of each other, as disintegration would mean a fall of the legacy they hold. Taming of gangs is a vital aspect, which might bring more good than harm. It is essentially costly to tame crime than to eliminate the vice. Steps aimed at eliminating the vice go a long way towards healing a deficit, which would be rampant in case the vice is condoned. In the US, organized crime control act depicts organized crime as unlawful (Kofele-Kale, 63). Criminal activity is perpetuated by an initially structured group. Mob psychology is interesting by the fact that the contender is directly unwilling to do the same when in isolation. Inspiration of a gang is always drawn by the mob psychology to run activities without a withdrawal knowing that there is sharing of the benefits while the wrath of the consequences will not befall an individual. This gives a gang the confidence to hide their responsibility for the crime, thus, it is easier to commit a crime. Most gangs are of male compatriots who are youthful proving that just like the crime of drug abuse, it is a socio-economically dependent vice. While these gangs are not so rampant in the US, there are croons of gangs in Mexico who prove to be the drug cartels and who are consequently the greatest crime threat to the US (Sjögren and Skogh, 87).
The highest threat to social peace of the US is weapons particularly guns. Guns are ammunitions for protection. Illegal acquisition of a gun is a threat to security, as opposed to the general use as a mean of protection to citizens. The US government has put a ban on illegal sale of guns, and dire punitive consequences face those who are guilty of the offence. Manufacture of guns takes place across the continent, although most countries have laws barring civilians from ownership due to the security implications they possess. The common policies that shape up the firearms act is the Brady Aiolence Act which was controversial for the Federal Government. Access to guns was under control of the Handgun Transfer Prevention Act based on mistaken identities (Gallant 34).
In conclusion, economics of crime depicts the economic importance of social injustices, classifying the importance of shunning crime. Crime is a social injustice whose economic consequences are not only harmful but also fatal. Economic crime draws the line of calculation of the benefits a nation can reap if it is crime free. Perpetration of a crime is always committed by an individual or a group of people known as a gang. The male gender is scientifically associated with crime than the female while the youth are prone to crime compared to the aged. Prevention of crime calls for articulation of strict laws and heavy penalties for the offenders, coupled with restructuring of correctional facilities. Law enforcement agencies should not only lock up offenders but also expose them to a rehabilitation program. This will help change of character and attitude towards uptake of crime. The drug agencies should seek the abolishment of growth and manufacture of drugs while formulating other sustainable livelihoods to those who depend on the sale of drugs to make a living. Finally, every society must come up with guidance and counseling programs to impart the youth with knowledge on the hazards of crime. This will go along in bringing up a crime free society with good health, where everybody is subject to peace, and no life is lost to crime or no one is taken hostage or accountable for any form of social injustices. This is the fruits of economic crime.