An information process has a purpose in that it addresses the needs of an individual or a group and involves computer and no-computer activities. Information processes give rise to ethical issues directly or indirectly for people involved with them. There are seven information processes and each process has its role in the life cycle. The seven processes include: collecting, organizing storing and retrieving, processing, analyzing, transmitting and receiving and displaying.
Explanations of each of the information processes.
Collecting-This refers to the systematic identification of the sources of data, deciding how to collect it and the form in which it might be collected. Methods of collecting data include: recording, using questionnaires, surveys, audio and visual aids. Organizing refers to the process of putting the data in order either manually on paper or using the computer and other electronic forms.
Storing and retrieving involves storing of data either on-line or off-line in various formats. There are primary and secondary storage forms and there are several considerations which should be taken when storing and retrieving data. For example, speed and frequency of retrieval, storage capacity and estimation of storage requirements. In processing, both manual and automated processing should be put into consideration, including the merits and demerits of each.
Analyzing refers to the difference between data, information and knowledge. Analysis involves interpreting the data, and transforming it into actionable or useful form. Transmitting and retrieving- this involves sending and receiving data and information within and beyond information systems .it also involves the process by which is saved and accessed later. Displaying involves the form in which the information will be displayed and includes audio and visual output as well as screen display and printed output.
The flow of information can be represented a diagram as follows
Storing and retrieving
Transmitting and receiving
Each process provides the material necessary for the next process to perform its function and send the finished material along to the next and are implemented in an organization for the purpose of improving effectiveness and efficiency of an organization..
In a business situation, collection of data can be done through allocating employees to go to the ground and find out for example the reasons for customer dissatisfaction about the services they are offering. This will help the manager of the enterprise re-strategies and find new ways of attracting and retaining their customers. The data can be collected by issuing questionnaires, oral interviews, and field work. This helps the organization ensure that they remain aligned to accomplish the overall goal of the organization.
This is the most important factor since without good data, it does not matter how good your business is at the moment, if there is no data or the data available is not of sufficient quality, any measures to keep abreast with your competitors will fail. Business performance management activities often involve the collection of large volumes of data from software and hardware vendors. collection of data also helps the business or company remain competitive by using the best tools available. Data collection also allows companies to keep track of their customer interests and target their markets before even purchasing is made.
Business organizations rely heavily on data to make more informed choices so that they become competitive by having a greater knowledge of their customers. Quality data also helps provide the best services and products, cuts costs, and controls risks. Whether one is starting a new business or launching a new product, data collection is vital so that you know who you are targeting and develop the best product to met their needs. The feedback comes back from the employees who collect data on the products or services they offer .the data will then be organized in order of priority either manually or using a computer .most businesses incur losses because the data collected are not put in order such that a manager will encounter a multitude of numbers, statistics and reports that have no significance.
A well organized database is an extremely valuable tool in the decision making of a business enterprise. The data collected must be structured logically for example by time, component, importance and so on .for example if the products or services offered do not suit the customers needs then they will have to change their presentation or handle the clients professionally providing the best goods they can get from the manufacturers or suppliers. All these information should be stored especially electronically for future reference.
The management of the business management should find a way of entering the data into the system of the enterprise in a format that can be easily retrieved. This will make it easier for the management to access especially when they want to upgrade their systems or offer advice to their clients or other smaller enterprises. If the system of storage is poorly done, the users may become frustrated and waste time in trying to figure out how the system functions. IT specialists could be consulted. Storage can be done in computer or paper-based systems.
Whichever method is used' securing your data will help safeguard the vital pieces of information that you need to keep tour business running. If not , it will be very difficult to make informed decisions and put you at a risk of running at a loss .if the data is lost stored inappropriately or accessed by unauthorized persons , it could be very difficult to replace and cost you the reputation of your business. Also you will not your organizations projects or new designs delayed hence lose potential sales and sources of revenue.
Good organization of data makes an organization be ahead of their competitors and the business is bound to be successful in this digital age. In addition, good organization of a system helps you satisfy your customers because they will get extraordinary service from your organization thus you will retain them. we are n a stage of swift changes in the business world and there is stiff competition and good organization of data and information from the ground is necessary to advance enterprises. Data organization and management are very beneficial to an organization because they provide accountability, reduce duplication of data and improve timeliness and usability of data.
Once the data is stored; it should be analyzed in such a way that it can be easily interpreted by people from all walks of life. it could also be put on paper and made available to the employees. In processing, both manual and automated processing should be considered and is advantageous if the data is stored in both forms because one will act as a back-up for the other. If the hard copy is destroyed one can always print others and the computer system crushes you can always get the
Data installed again .in this way you an always guard yourself against the risks. Data should be made accessible for easy analysis to enhance making of the right decisions, and enhance clarity and consistency for comprehensive action. Analyzing, according to the Collins English dictionary, involves the examination and evaluation of the relevant information. in order to select the best course of action from among various alternatives.
It also refers to the uncovering of relationships among the data collected and try make a meaning out of them. In a business situation the essential purpose of analysis is to identify strategic opportunities and threats in the organization's environment that will affect how the clients' needs are met. There are three essential things that an organization needs to examine when meeting the needs of its customers product development, customer satisfaction and efficiency. Understanding how data relates to the daily tasks of business executives helps strategies more effectively.
Data governance is very fragile and should be handled by experienced personnel because it is key to determining an enterprises failure or success. Organizations can analyze and interpret data into useful information for planning and managing performance .analyzing and correctly interpreting data forms the key component in enabling executives and decision makers make informed choices based on a full, all-round view of the bigger picture within the organization and outside it. A business-any business-cannot survive without analyzing data.
For example if a company wants to produce a new line of deodorant it will carry out a survey and arrive at a meaningful decision. Or take the example of a company manager in charge of sales and marketing, who knows that there is something that is not right with the kind of one of its blends of fruit juice, data analysis will enable this sales manager put a finger on the problem and act on it with immediate effect. These situations indicate that data analysis is the core of a business.
Transmitting and receiving of information in a business setting basically define what communication is .business communication is more goals oriented, specific and systematic. Because easy you communicate at the back of your mind you want to persuade people to accomplish what you desire by selling an idea or a product. The ability to communicate well is a valuable asset because your customers and business associates will form a better impression of you thus you will have created a positive image of your company and be a step ahead of your competitors.
Effective business messages build and retain clients both internally and externally. You can communicate through memos, letters reports or the internet and to do this you have to be articulate because you have competitors. Good communication makes you project a favorable image of yourself and your organization .communication is also very crucial for managerial functions as you will be required to regularly plan, design, and control affairs to cut costs and maximize your production.
It also helps in the running of the organization because in a business organization you are required to transfer your objectives, policies to the people you are working with as basic managerial functions. The transmission and receiving of data can either be verbal or non-verbal. Such that you must be conversant with the internet, faxes, pagers ,and other electronic communication devices to enable you increase your speed of efficiency , to people from opposite ends of the world without hitches and also work away from the office and have work done as desired .this will also help raise the image of your company.
Great levels of information flow also help enables a company operates at a higher level of productivity leading to more profits. When information is transferred quickly and efficiently, he data will be acted on within a very short period of time. Good transmission and reception of information enables a company manufacture its products with a high level of precision and costs will be cut. And will quickly get accustomed to changes that occur in the market.
Transmission and receiving of data is also crucial because they enable managers ,customers ,and groups to exchange data and information anywhere anytime with users, customers , suppliers and business partners to manage their operations effectively and compete successfully in today's cut -throat competition among business enterprises. Great communication is advantageous because it helps overcome barriers such as geographical. Time, cost and structural barriers.( Stobbs G.A. 2002).In addition , great communication improves responsiveness over time by pursuing new market places and increasing the efficiencies .the employees also send and receive data and should have the knowledge and training to get back to their customers efficiently and effectively.
We cannot undermine the fact that the success of any business lies in its power to transmit and receive information. Successful communicator has a good effect on the minds of his potential customers, suppliers, investors, employees and associates. he builds the good will of the company he works with .this needs to be built up in order to get the client s trust and confidence and strong relationships good for the business's future. This ensures that there is equilibrium between the external and internal factors .poor or miss-communication can be detrimental to the business or worse still cost the company a fortune.
Display stands are the best in promoting the goods and services that a business enterprise offers. Without displays, it will be very difficult to get the products of a company get to the market. Displays make a very big difference in exhibitions the one that stand s out is the one that is more attractive and we are drawn to it. The display stand should be well designed because there is cut-throat competition .the message should be catchy, clear and precise because first impressions matter. Great display is very effective in capturing the attention of potential clients. They could be in various forms including animations, catchy phrases or audio visuals which are the best so far. There is need for promoting companys products because it helps expand the businesses territories. Display and advertising arouses curiosity such that the public get to know about a product.
A good number of business organizations spend huge chunks of money on advertising their services and products because they know that it is very vital for the survival of their businesses it boosts the products and services and this definitely results in increase in profits. a companies display has to be the best because there is a huge competition and you have to curve a niche for your self in order to stand out .it is risky for a business to just place a general advert without giving it the seriousness it deserves .the domain of marketing changes constantly and there is need to take advantage of the marketing opportunities available. therefore the display and marketing strategies should be implemented and kept up-to-date. Take the coca-cola company for example. it has been riding on the crest of success for quiet sometime now and is making good profits. They excel very well in sales. This is a good example of what good display and marketing can do to the revenue of a company.
They have managed to build a successful image using powerful slogans like 'live on the coke-side of life' or' image is nothing thirst is everything' thereby setting their brand of soda apart from other soft drink manufacturing companies the world over. Display and marketing is unavoidable in order to be successful by informing potential customers, wholesalers and retailers about their products. There are several ways of displaying a company's products and this can be done through advertising, publicity or promotions and should be used in combination to create an advantageous mix. The mode of display and marketing is different for small businesses and big businesses. The small business must be very imaginative in their marketing in order to get more customers and expand their business. The key to successful display and marketing is understanding your market i.e. under what socio-economic class your customers fall under you can use audio and visual aids to display and market (Viardot, 2004)
In conclusion the seven information processes cannot work in isolation especially in a business situation rather they should be integrated to get the best results and ensure customer satisfaction. Each of the seven processes do not necessarily have to be used in business situation .they can be applied to various fields with the correct interpretation and procedures .the work in this paper was how they could be used in the field of business.
The four core computer applications
The four core computer applications include ms word, Ms Excel, Ms Access and Ms PowerPoint. Ms excel is a program that processes words and allows other simple operations. and stands alone .it is the most used word processor. Ms excel is a spread sheet application used for calculations, doing graphics and tables and is broken into rows and columns. it can also translate figures into charts, histograms and line graphs.
Ms access refers to a data base management system and data manipulation tool used in small businesses. Ms PowerPoint is a program used for presentation created by Microsoft for slide shows. Ms PowerPoint is often used to create business presentations which can include slides containing images and one can customize it to add extra appeal to your presentations.
Their uses in the business world
In the business domain, ms word is used for typing office work which has facilities that help the users save their wok and get it done efficiently. is extremely useful because it can be used to write memos especially to the different heads of department in the company t inform them of any new policies or changes in the company .customers can also be informed on the new products that the company is offering. This can be done by collecting the information from the clients. This will make them respond quickly to customer needs and make them according to their specifications. The success of the organization largely depends on the ability of the business enterprise to organize the information they collect from different sources and this heavily relies on a well functioning information system.
Good collection and organization of information will boost the supply- chain management. Ms word could also be used to write letters for various reasons for example, a thank-you letter,a merger between two businesses , customer appreciation letters, employees for their exceptional performance etc it can also be used to write memos to aid the memory by recording events or observations on a topic. This comes in handy when restoring and retrieving the information of an organization. a memo could also be used to brief the employees of policies of the company especially when adopting new policies.
In the use of ms excel, a business ca use it to create charts and diagrams for example on its performance trends over a year .it can also be used to calculate to draw their budgets and plans, keep business and customer records . Analyze their performance in terms of sales and customer data. It is useful especially when analyzing sales because one can present your performance using graphs and charts which are easier to interpret than if the information were to be put in words. You can also use it to manage your data by creating boxes to reduce erroneous data storage .it also makes calculations easier especially when dealing with fixed costs and step-up costs. The goal seeking function in excel completes such a task in a few seconds. Also, when entering data in an excel sheet, you don't have to be worried about how the sheet will look because as you enter the data, the table is developed.
.ms PowerPoint can be used for a variety of presentations in the office because they utilize both audio and visual techniques. it can be used in a business to enhance sales or convince the executive board why you should adopt a strategy over another and the best way to do this is by presenting using PowerPoint. This also saves time and money because it is cheaper and saves both time and money for the organization,. also using PowerPoint in front of potential clients will make the client s know that you are up to date and even attract them. Excel has indispensable use like it can be used to manage stock, track sales and merge data thus making transmission and reception of information up to date. PowerPoint is a very power fu tool when it comes to display and advertisement. You can make your adverts appealing by having them presented on digital bill boards. This will attract more audience than the normal bill boards because tit will be an eye catcher.
three information process that each application addresses best
In the use of ms access, it is advantageous because this program can be integrated wit other applications such as Ms Excel. Word etc.
The information processes that each application best addresses. Transmission and reception of data is best handled by ms word, because word can be used to transmit information, like mails to clients, or employees, letters and letterheads and even aid memory.
Excel makes work easier by organizing data and makes analysis easier rather than using the manual systems and holding lengthy meetings to decide whether the sale of a product was successful .it also makes storage and retrieval of information easier.
PowerPoint is the best when it comes to advertising. You can create slide shows and can insert graphics, texts, movies and other objects to your desired effects. the presentation can be done on a computer or a projector for a large audience. it saves lots of time which would be used for other things because you do not have to print the material or even drawing manually.