The Article by Robert Romero focuses on the Transnational Chinese Immigrant Smuggling to the United States through Mexico and Cuba. The author argues that smuggling arrangement was undertaken after payment of a stipulated fee. This was facilitated by Chinese Six Companies that developed a creative scheme to enhance their activities—substitution. The government initiative to deter this operation ensued with a thorough investigation undertaken on these Six Companies. However, the United States government did not impose strict regulation, as the Chinese Six Companies continued to market illicit sale of fraudulent and forged merchandise. Indeed, transnational illegal smuggling should not be encouraged, and various strategies need to be implemented to mitigate this adversity. Its demise was achieved in the twentieth century—after the interruption by the transpacific steamship. Is the US inefficient in handling international matters? This is yet to be determined.
On the other hand, Lee Erika’s article focuses is on the harmonization of the US-China border policies. Both the northern and Southern border, in the US, was strictly guarded to prevent immigration into the region. However, Chinese border was later closed, which was the root for the conflict between the two regions. Exclusive policies regarding borders were the concern in Chinese and US residents. Following the bombing of the twin-towers, of the US, the government decided to negotiate with China on harmonizing their border policies. Adopting Chinese immigration policies would be an uphill task for United States, and the government needs to analyze if it is essential to undertake such strategy. Currently, the government is faced with the task of combating criminality and terrorism, immigration policy development, and transnational border enforcement. This are the vital factors that the Americans need to implement.