Mass communication is a term that refers to the organization of symbolic merchandise transmission of information to reach the appropriate targeted fraction of the population.1. Characteristics of mass communication
Mass communication entails both Technical and institutional production and distribution methods which are ultimately practiced throughout the media fraternity from print to internet with appropriateness to commercial utilization (McQuail , 2009).The involvement of symbolic form commoditization being that the material production relies on the ability to produce and sell large quantities of work for example; the radio stations depends on the sales from advertisement and other communication materials likewise to print media like the newspaper that relies on the communication through the sale of spaces in the news paper (Murray , 2003). However, the other characteristic of mass media is the distinctive context that separates the information production and reception. This indicates the different structures and procedures involved in the production of information and the intended impact on the recipient (Thornton , 2000). The other character is determined by the population that the specific media targets. This depends on the technology and the living standards of the targeted group, for instant, you do not expect everybody to be able to purchase a specific newspaper, some newspapers targets the youths, lifestyle e.t.c. The distribution of information, it involves the relationship for example one- to- many, this form of communication involves the mass production with target to a large audience.2. What are the administrative and critical traditions in media research?
Through linking the pragmatic and media study, mass communication linked to human health research study varies on the practical effects in regard to human health (Thornton , 2000). For instance, the knowledge application can act as an advertisement booster for products that reacts with the human health likewise to those that enhance the well being of or boosts system (Murray , 2003). However, research may help to legitimize or magnify the impacts of message. Ultimately, the form taken by the media education in representing the health related concerns. This aspect of communication is important in research, more specifically in the critical concern on the effects of research application with ability to enhance the mediated messaging effects on human health (McQuail , 2009).3. What are the differences between encoding and decoding of meaning?
Communication is aimed at passing clear information from one point to the other without any ambiguity or distortion, however, information can be passed through verbal, written and/ or non verbal for example use of brails and sign language. In order to achieve the target both the sender and the receiver must actively be involved in this process. Within the communication process, improper communication channel may lead to misinterpretation of the intended information that if not detected would cause tremendous waste of money, efforts, confusion (Thornton , 2000).The barriers to effective communication can pop up at any or every communication stage which consists of the message sender, message, communication channel, message receiver, feedback and context.Before the information is conveyed, the sender determines the content of information to be conveyed with confidence on the usefulness and accuracy.Message - is the content of information that you intend to communicate (Thornton , 2000).Encoding
- at this process the information to be communicated should be transformed into the form that is well understood by the receiver which can be successfully achieved depending on the ability of the sender to formulate the information in a simple relevant and clear format that suits the receiver. However, they can only be determined but the sender for instance, the language that the receiver understands best can only be defined by the sender (the sender should know the audience) (Thornton & Murray , 2003).Channel - This is the process through which the information reaches the targeted reliever. For example, in written communication it includes letters, reports, e-mails and memos while in verbal communication the cannel includes; video and teleconferences, face to face meetings. Within the different channels there are strengths and weaknesses the ineffectiveness of provision of very long lists through a phone call would be ineffective likewise to use of email for criticism, this is because the in critics, without direct communication it hearts to respond to criticism (McQuail , 2009).4. What are two key debates in theories of globalization?
According to Waltz, globalization refers to homogeneity; for example in the prizes, interests, rates, culture e.t.c. However, in order to develop a strong economy, there is need to be transparent, an ideological, political and social realm as well. However, media and communication are the main sources of globalization (Thornton , 2000). The world to date had undergone globalization duo to the availability of the media that has even made the world to be a small place to live in with communications from allover the world. to achieve the above mentioned factors there must be a mode of communication. The debate on media freedom has been a struggle in the global scope. Though not all media houses engage in true stories, it is not right to deny the media freedom of expression and performance in their line of duty, though through communication (Thornton , 2000).5. What is an audience and why study it?
In relation to mass communication, audience refers to the targeted group by the media in relation to the information to be conveyed. Media content is polluted with a lot of information that is not only targeting one class or group of audience for instance an advertisement about the family planning and use of both contraceptives and condoms. Such information is relevant to the adults but not the children (McQuail , 2009). So, media audience should be studied carefully in order to determine which kind of media vehicle to use form specific information to ensure that only the targeted audience receives the information content, additionally, the media vehicle which best suites the target audience may be on one way or the other the musty used by all groups of audience. However, the timing of the advertisement may solve the problem of media pollution for instance; the programs that contain the information targeting the youths and children should be aired during the day and early evening so that when the children shall have retired to bed, thereafter, then the programs that target the family (audience) to follow (Thornton , 2000). However, proper choice of audience comparatively to the information content can greatly influence the impact of information which will also increase the preference in the specific media that practices proper audience and the effects in order to program media coverage in an ethical manner taking into consideration all the groups of audience and the consequences of the information content to both the targeted and the untargeted audience (McQuail , 2009). 6. What is media's role in cosmopolitanism?
Just three ago the media fraternity globally experienced enormous publication due to the global exponential growth alongside critical media system examination on the content and the reception (Thornton , 2000). Recently, the issue of global media text circulation encourages cosmopolitanism which influences human/ citizen identification in the global context. However, these contexts counter for both the national and international levels signifying the ability to live both in the local and globally alike. Ideologically, cosmopolitanism has been viewed as an increasing alternative to, despite the gradual increase in the practical application and empirically growing interest in research on theory of media studies, undoubtedly, cosmopolitanism is a contented concept, and so is its application in the media studies hence a conceptual, logical and procedural tool (McQuail , 2009). 7. What are the key arguments explaining the significance of print culture (e.g.news)?
In the olden days people thought that internet would not bring down the print media, however, with the availability of wide range of internet and Telemedia services at exemplarily cheap rates, the demand for print media have drastically reduced due to the long information delivery period that the print media takes (Murray , 2003). Additionally, internet and telemedia only requires seconds to deliver the message to the destined person with a lot of data security and integrity, under such circumstances, who will dare sending mail through the post office? Currently, the threatening reading styles are changing; the youths for example are now glued to the internet obtaining the same news that is sod in the print media cheaper that some one who purchased the newspaper (McQuail , 2009). The print media fraternity is currently scheming on how to recapture the lost monopoly. Decades ago, media companies got a lot of money from advertisements which are currently done through television, radios and telephony services. 8. What is the spiral of silence in mass communication
This refers to the reaction of the minority in relation to the media coverage, however, this is based on three main premises.i) The sixth sense that enables the people to realize identifies with and knows the prevailing public opinion.ii) The fear of isolation and the behavior that is likely to influence social isolation.iii) Minority reticence in expression of their views due to the panic of isolationThe closer the believe is on the similarity of the held opinion which is in favor of the person, the more the chances of the person openly contributing to the public and vise versa (Murray , 2003).