Strategy is a term mostly used in management. It has different definitions according to the people who founded a specific form of strategy. Even though strategy has different ways of description, the expected outcome of strategies is similar. Strategies help organizations, institutions or companies to come up with desired goals. Furthermore, it provides direction to the workers in an organization and serves as an improvement tool.
Even with the fact that strategy is very important I an organization, it also has weakness and strength in the same organizations. In this study, we will consider various definitions of strategy according to different people and the weakness accompanied to these kinds of defined strategies.
Strategy according to Liddell
Liddell is a man who worked in the Military and therefore he has made a definition of strategy basing it to this job environment. Actually, it does not mean that his definition is limited to the Military. Definition is more les like a name and therefore, it does not mean it is limited to one place. It is unlimited and any field can apply it and serve a great purpose in the field. Therefore, Liddell defines strategy as, "the art of distributing and applying military means to fulfill the ends of policy” (Liddell, (1967)). He made this definition of strategy from a Military point of view but we can consider it as a strategic term used in different fields. In the field of management or a different field, we can omit the word military and apply that definition to accomplish our goals.
Strengths of Liddell’s definition of strategy
Liddell’s definition of strategy is very useful especially to the members occupying leadership positions in the military. It provides them knowledge of strategy in the field of military and hence helps them to apply it and come up with desirable results. Liddell’s definition of strategy is helpful to the people who understand management. To those people who understand management, they can interpret this definition in the management point of view, apply it to the day-to-day activities of management, and make a good outcome.
Weakness of Liddell’s definition of strategy
Liddell’s definition of strategy is not that open, it is closed or specific. His definition is specifically talking about the means or the tactics that military can apply in order to come up with desirable results. It looks complex and does not bring direct understanding to someone who has no management idea.
Strategy According to George Steiner
Steiner a professor of management has many definitions of strategy. Steiner came up with the many definitions of strategy because of his intense studies. He has written a lot in management, and since he begun writing he has never come up with a specific way of defining strategy.
One of his definitions of strategies is that strategy is basic the directional decisions that is to purposes and missions (Steiner, (1979)). When looking at Steiner’s definition of strategy you will realize that, he is only describing a similar thing. Steiner is looking at strategy as a question of what the organization is doing to achieve a certain goal. Besides this is like a question of that answers what an organization need to do in order to make its ends meet.
Strengths of Steiner’s definition of strategy
Steiner came up with different ways of defining strategy. In his definitions, people can easily understand what strategy is and how to apply it in management issues.
Weakness of Steiner’s definition to strategy
Steiner has come up with many definitions of strategy but they are all the same. It sometime confuses, it needs clarity before putting it to application in a required field. It was better for Steiner to make a short and precise definition of strategy in order to guard against confusion.
Strategy According to Henry Mintzberg
Mintzberg has defined strategy in four different ways; he says that strategy is a plan or a means of getting from one place to another. He says strategy is a pattern of actions over time. Mintzberg goes on to define strategy as position that reflects decisions offering particular products or services to specific markets, lastly, he defines strategy to as a perspective, which is direction and vision.
Strengths of Mintzberg’s definition of strategy
Mitzberg’s definitions are clear and help one to understand the way to apply in a specific field. He has outlined some uses of strategy in his definitions and this provides easy understanding. People working in high-level management positions in organization can benefit from this kind of definitions. For this reason, they can make their organizations productive through these definitions.
Strategy According to Kenneth Andrews
Kenneth says, "Corporate strategy is the pattern of decisions in a company that determines and reveals its objectives purposes, or goals, produces the principal policies and plans for achieving those goals. It defines the range of business the company is to pursue, the kind of economic and human organization it is or intends to be, and the nature of the economic and non-economic contribution it intends to make to its shareholders, employees, customers, and com-munities" (Andrews (1980)).
Strengths of Andrew’s strategy definition
Kenneth, strategy definition seems to be a combination of many aspects towards the attainment of organizational goal or objectives. It is important to any organizational set up and will yield thus is a good strategic value.
Weakness of Andrew’s strategy definition
Andrew’s definition of strategy is complex because he has put together many ideas. This makes it difficult for someone to come up with a clear meaning of strategy and thus difficult to apply it in an organizational set up.
Strategy According to Michael Porter
According to Potter strategy is a position and plan, where by one has to maintain a higher position and come up with a good plan to achieve the organizational goals.
Strengths of potter definition of strategy
Potters definition to strategy is short and precise. It brings easy understanding and thus easy to apply on organizational l set up.
Weakness of potter’s definition to strategy
Potter defines strategy in one line, he defines a competitive strategy only, and this therefore helps one to understand only one type of strategy but not strategy in general. Organization managers should have the knowledge of strategy as a whole so that he/she can come up with measures that can favor the organizations sues.
Strategy According to Kepner-Tregoe
According to Kepner strategy is “the framework which guides those choices that determine the nature and direction of an organization."
Strengths of kepner’s definition of strategy
Kepner’s definition of strategy is easy to understand and hence easy to apply in an organization. This will therefore lead to organizational success.
Weakness of kepner’s definition to strategy
Kpner’s definition of strategy is from a specific field of institution. It links itself with a business organization and may not be easy to practice in non-business organization. It can only be possible under employed of great idea.
Strategy According to Michel Robert
According to Robert, strategy is the ability to think strategically
Strength of Roberts’s strategy
Robert’s definition is very important to management of business organizations because it caries business activities.
Weakness of Robert’s strategy
This form of organizations strategy targets the business organizations only. To other organizations, it cannot serve a direct meaning and hence we can say it is limited. This becomes a disadvantage to other organizations members.
Strategy According to Treacy and Wiersema
Treacy and Wiersema have no specific definition of strategy, but they have come up with three value disciplines of defining it.
Strength of Treacy and Wiersema’s definition of strategy
It is a good strategy to all business organizations. It helps the business managers to make use of the three value disciplines to make their organizations productive.
Strategy according to Nickols
According Nickos, strategy is perspective, position, plan, and pattern. He adds that strategy the end-result defines strategy. Actually, strategy is verifiable through the results. After obtaining the anticipated results, we can say a strategy exists in an organization.
Strengths of Nickols strategy definition
Nickol’s definition of strategy is very important to business managers. Its significance to an organization leads to organizational performance.
Weakness of Nickol’s strategy definition
His definition seems to focus the field of business. It will therefore benefit organizations under the field of business.
Generally, when looking at all strategy definitions, you will understand that they pull towards a certain goal. All definitions of strategy drives to the end-results, each of them has a different approach but it rotates about the achievement of the desired goal in an organization or institution.