Discuss how personal differences and preference can impact organizational ethics.
People have different attitudes towards their work due to their preferences. This implies that there exists natural tension between people values or preferences and organizational ethics (Giacalone & Jurkiewicz, 2010). Personal and professional differences have impact on organizational impact in that people start behaving in ways that are inconsistent with their personal characteristics and not consistent with organizational ethics. Giacalone & Jurkiewicz (2010) established that "the deciding factor behind a person's decision to conform, leave, or alter is based on the relative priority given to the conflicting organizational ethics" (p. 155). Individual preferences shape ones consciousnesses; imposing routines that reflect socially approved, purposive action hence they guide the perception and behavior of oneself. This implies that these preferences present cultural and contextual constraints that alter individual and organizational perspectives on social issues (Giacalone & Jurkiewicz, 2010).
Studies indicate that if a personal need for job is an individual's overriding value above all other, then conformance to organizational ethics is the likely response to the detriment of the individual (Giacalone & Jurkiewicz, 2010). Also it has been noted that if deeply embedded values are under attack from inflexible organizational ethics it is thus possible that an individual will leave the organization. According to Giacalone & Jurkiewicz (2010), though increasing number of persons are choosing to remain within organizations whose ethics clash with their personal preferences. One major impact is that rather than these individuals succumbing to these pressures they are seeking to change the organizational ethics in ways that will fit their personal differences. As a result personal differences cause people to strive to develop their complete self at the organization. Organizational ethics may be too rigid and established to change hence personal values may be subsumed for the sake of employment.
The second impact of personal differences to organizational ethics is that such individuals derive sense of self-actualization through their actions and a sense of sacredness and purpose through their work that allows them to feel more genuine and authentic in resolving conflicted value systems and shaping new ones (Giacalone & Jurkiewicz, 2010). Giacalone & Jurkiewicz (2010) indicated that the critical factor is that individual preferences in organizations are guided by a set of deeply personal and highly personal values that represent a higher purpose. As a result these preferences drive them to experience a higher sense of service in making a difference by contributing to the organization. Another impact is that these beliefs are held at the level of the individual and are formed through personal reflection, personal development, and association with organizational ethics and with other cultural groups.
Discuss how organizational policies and procedures can impact ethics.
Sims (2003) says that organizational policies and procedures ensure high attention to ethics in the workplace. It is better to ensure that the organization has well designed policies and procedures so as to ensure ethical treatment of employees in matters that include hiring, evaluating, disciplining, and firing. Sims (2003) established that "an employer can be subject to suit for breach of contract for failure to comply with the policies and procedures outlined" (p. 19). This means that the gap between organizational policies and actual practice has fundamental legal and ethical implications. Organizational policies and procedures help avoid criminal acts and can lower fines. Policies tend to detect ethical issues and violations early so that they can be reported and addressed.
Organizational policies and procedures have impact on ethics because it helps them maintain moral course in turbulent times of the organization. Sims (2003) indicated that attention to business ethics is significant during the times of fundamental change. Policies during times of change guide leaders through complex conflicts about what is right and wrong. The implication is that continuing attention to ethics in an organization sensitizes leaders and staff to how they want to act (Sims, 2003). A strong commitment to organizational policies and procedures cultivates strong team work and productivity which very important characteristics for today's successful organization. On the other hand ethics programs align employee behaviors with most important ethical values preferred by leaders of the organization (Sims, 2003).
Consequently, attention to organizational policies and procedures ensure that there is an ongoing attention and dialogue regarding values in the workplace to build integrity and openness which are the critical ingredients of strong teams in the organization and therefore employees feel strong alignment between their ethics and those of the organization (Sims, 2003). Sims (2003) further says that "ethical climate and institutionalized organizational ethics are an insurance policy because they help ensure that policies are legal" (p. 18). Another impact of organizational policies and procedures is that they identify preferred values and ensure that organizational behaviors are aligned with those ethical values. Sims (2003) also indicated that "developing policies and procedures should be geared towards developing policies and procedures to align behaviors with preferred values, and then training all personnel about the policies and procedures" (p. 19).
A commitment to ethics promotes a strong public image of the organization. Sims (2003) says that an organization that regularly gives attention to its ethics can portray a strong positive to the public. Aligning policies and procedures to ethics in an organization legitimizes managerial actions, strengthens the coherence, and balances organizational culture. Sims (2003) also says that policies and procedures impact its ethics in that they improve trust in relationships between individuals and groups, supports greater consistency in standards and qualities of products, and cultivates greater sensitivity to the impact of the enterprise ethics and messages.
Discuss the ethical dilemmas that Valerie is facing.
Valerie Young was an employee for a Chicago based company named Wisson. Valerie was an immigrant worker in the United States that was based on a temporary work visa. She comes to a situation were by she has to play her ethics and personal values (Organizational behavior). Valerie establishes that there was an ethical shortcoming associated with her manager who was violating the company policy by taking kickbacks through supplying under the name of his private company. The manager continued to funnel money through his private company disregarding the company policy and procedures due to his position in the department (Organizational behavior). Upon discovering this it put Valerie in a tricky position because she knew that her boss was in charge of the department and if he were gone, the small team may as well not survive either.
One of the ethical dilemmas facing Valerie was that she did not have a United States green card, but she had only a special working visa that allows non-US citizens with unique skills to work in the country for a certain amount of time. The book organizational behavior indicates that this kind of visa is completely dependent on the fairness of the company Valerie was working for and this means that she could certainly lose the right to work or even else the right to stay in the United States if she did not have the job any longer. The recommendation from her boyfriend was not to reveal the information to anyone at the present time so that she did not endanger her job or schooling opportunities in the United States.
Another ethical dilemma is that by waiting to tell anyone until she got her schooling completed or found another job is not the right thing to do ethically. This is also a demonstration of the ethical code pertaining to the serviceable principle. We can therefore say that in Valerie's mind, she was acting like that not only to keep her job and masters tuition in the United States, but for the sake of her colleagues, who may be distressed by her pronouncement to report her managers' immodesty. Valerie in this context is showing apprehension for others principle of justice for all.
Recommend what Valerie should do. Provide a detailed explanation
Considering the four ethical principles of self serving, utilitarian, concern for other and distributive justice, Valerie actions would have been a bit tricky. Valerie should find the manager's personal invoices and ensure that she does not keep this information for herself alone. She should then pass this information anonymously to upper management without the knowledge of her department members (organizational behavior). She should do this anonymously, because she would not want to reveal at that time that she was the one who made the detection. With Valerie's citizenship, job, and education status at risk from Mr. Waters' revenge, she will feel safer in perceiving that top management would take the position without auxiliary intercession from her. Recognizing that top management was obligated to the ethical behavior of all workers and department managers is enough for her to realize that she would be acting in the right manner in this situation she is faced with.
Through discovering the invoices in the copier, Valerie is faced with an ethical decision. Valerie must decide to report the situation and establish the probable blow on her department members. She must know that she is faced with the issue of role uncertainty. Although it is not her responsibility to report this unethical practice Valerie should not wait until the department manager gets himself entrapped because this may take long time. It is possible that by reporting the manager directly could mean that she could be out of work because of the possible payback mindset of her manager. By not reporting directly to the top management this will ensure that her interpersonal relationships they have developed over the long period of time could mean that she had put the whole department under jeopardy as well as herself. Though she may feel that she put her own interest first before ethics for that time, Valerie did not have a choice if she was to avoid becoming a martyr for the ethics cause.