Memorial architecture means buildings or structures built to honor victims of oppression, terrorism and genocide, or pay tribute to the religious, United Nations and historical figures, transcendent power of peace or military forces. An example of memorial architecture is the Vietnam Veterans memorials. The most remarkable memorial designs by Maya Lin, designed to honor the service members of the armed forces of United States, who fought during the Vietnam war, service members who went missing in action, and those who died in service in the South East Asia/Vietnam war. The second example is the Judenplatz Holocaust Memorial, one of the historic works of Rachael Whiteread, a British artist. It was constructed as a memorial to Austrian Jews killed during the Holocaust.
Modern architecture refers to a new style that emerged after the WW1 in many western countries. It involves rational use of modern material, rejection of historical ornament and precedent and using the principles of functionalist planning. It also includes overarching movement with the exact scope and widely-varying definition. The city of Wine Complex located in Northern space is a classic example of the modern architecture. This innovative, architectural, curvy and deconstructive structure represents a phenomenal piece of modern art. The mobile museum for China is another classic example of the modern architecture. This beautiful piece of work is a creation of Zaha Hadid, an artist who delivers futuristic, daring and unconventional structures. This structure fits the perfect description of the modern piece of art.
As stated in the first part of the question Maya Ying Lin and Rachel Whiteread are the artists who created memorials.
The Vietnam Veterans memorial was designed by Maya Ying Lin. The memorial is a V-shaped wall made of advanced black granite plates. Lin initiated the memorial at ground level, which allows visitors to experience the feelings of the war and the enclosure sense. She elicits observes’ attention of the pedigree of the war by crossing around the wall. Maya Lin’s design of the memorial faced a lot of objections and controversies resulting in heated debates. First, the jury opposed the arrangement of the memorial, and its difference between Lincoln and Washington Memorial. Other opponents considered the sunken wall as a sign of Lin’s underestimation of the war. There were also concerns over the black color of the wall, with the opponents saying that it was a general color of shame and humiliation, poverty and grief in many races and societies.
Rachel Whiteread was chosen to design a memorial in memory of the 65,000 Austrian Jews who lost their lives in the Nazis Holocaust during the Second World War. The memorial was named the Holocaust memorial, built as a tangible block with doorknobs that cannot open. The external part of the memorial took the shape of two doors and hundreds of books on the shelves. The books represent the Jewish people under oppression by the Nazis. Rachel intended to design the memorial to commemorate and to express respect and pride with fallback and inspiration as a way of communicating with the past. She received many objections on her design, which led to the delay of the project until the year 2000. The main objection was the simple harshness on the hundreds of blocks planted in Baroque square, and its difference in designs comparing to the White Memorials. They also objected the beauty of the monument, with critics saying the monument should not be as beautiful as it is today since it was meant to evoke brutality and the tragedy of the Holocaust.