Everyone has a dream that seems so unlikely to come true. The only chance not to deviate from the course is to withstand temptation and circumstances with dignity. A person needs to fight for a dream with pride in a heart, preserving love in a family.
A Raisin in the Sun – is not only the name of the play, it is also an essential idea that could be fully apprehended only in its duality. On the one hand, it recalls Langston Hughes’ poem “A Dream Deferred” and symbolize broken dreams (Loos, 2008). On the other hand, the raisin may symbolize black people that were eventually changed by the sunshine, but should never be compared with “bad grape”. Raisins are not spoilt by sunshine, but they are fed by it and their uniqueness is the part of their integrity.
The Youngers are not only “the Raisins in the Sun”, but also “raised in the Sun”. Considering the Sun as the symbol of freedom from narrow walls, offensive considerations and disrespectful treatment, the Youngers were raised in this sense of freedom and the new generation of Youngers should be raised in the same way.
The Lena’s flower could be understood both as the symbol of her children and as a symbol of her family. It is obvious for Lena, that the lack of free space put her children at odds with each other, as much as the flower cannot survive at the narrow box. According this analogy, the new house is regarded as the only way to make up the family (Loos, 2008).
The tree as the symbol of the family is the complex issue: Lena is the roots and the origin of the family. She sacrificed her dreams, as roots sacrificed the sunshine, being under the ground, to fulfill the family with the wisdom of ancestors. The bark of a tree might seem impenetrable and shallow. Nevertheless, the bark is the protection of the family, vulnerable and sensitive covering, the shell that holds everything together as well as Ruth does. Walter Lee is the trunk of the family tree, its hope. The trunk seems straight and plain, but its main prompt is to hold the tree, or to take care of the family, as Walter Lee tries to. The tree branches symbolize Beneatha’s natural complexity. She wants to follow her dream, reach the sky, the spiritual values and knowledge, using as many ways to express herself as there are branches on the tree. Leaves are the future of the tree, its offspring, new life and new generation, whose dreams and well-being is as important as Travis Younger’s future and life of the child in the Ruth’ womb. The whole tree lives for its brunches and leaves, supporting them. Nevertheless, the tree is alive and independent in its unity, when all relatives support each other, live with dignity, pride and love.
The father of the Youngers family has passed away prematurely. Lena Younger wants to spend 10,000 received from the insurance company with the maximum benefit for the family, but her children see the benefit in different ways. Her son Walter Lee Younger sees the happiness of his family in financial security, he is sure that his business potential is about to earn money, giving power to overcome the hopelessness and humiliation (Hansberry, 1995). Lena Younger understands controversy in her family, and realizes that she should separate money.
The one third of the check Lena Younger invested in the first down payment for a house, a part should be spent on Beneatha’s education and Walter Lee can use part of money for his business. Unfortunately, the rash decision splits all dreams at once: he loses money for his business and money for his sister’s education. Walter Lee is pushed into the corner by responsibility for his relatives’ broken dreams; as a result, he is willing to sacrifice principles to fix the situation. Nevertheless, wise Lena Younger reminds him that the principles and ideals raise personality, and a good example of father is primarily important for his son (Hansberry, 1995). In the end of the play, he rejects money from intolerant neighbors and realizes that principles presented with self-confidence and dignity is the fundamental manifestation of the masculinity.
Walter Lee faces Mr. Lindner as the trail in the middle of his desperation to understand that money does not bring the salvation. Money, paid for bereaved integrity is the new way to oppress black people, the new sophisticated and hypocrite way to break their will. Rejecting materialistic values with the help of his mother, Walter Lee understands that money is not a freedom at all. It is the dependence, the formal transformation of white power into the green one.
The arrogance of Beneatha Younger is only the external manifestations of the desire to follow the highest ideals in spite of narrow-mindedness, oppression and ignorance, to which society condemns a black woman. Sexism, racism and cultural oppression of ignorant society disturbs Beneatha, she cannot understand people with simple life goals, such as Ruth and her mother, who are far from intellectual enrichment (Bernstein, 2006). She rejects Christian religion, as its insignificance is obvious for her.
Beneatha is an archetype of the cultural feminist, she is more interested in the heritage of black people, in the promised motherland Africa and Joseph, the young man who understands her individuality (Bernstein, 2006). Joseph Asagai symbolize ethnicity and innovation, uniqueness of culture and knowledge, future and past, that should be combined in a black man of the new generation that will be able to overcome oppression and intolerance of white men. ? ? ??????. ?????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ? ?? ?????. ?????, ??? ??????? ???????? ?? ???????.
In the middle of 20th century, the real dream about equity, dignity and confidence in the future dwelled within hearts of black people. The unique play “A Raisin in the Sun” has finally shown the way of its manifestation. Losing money, Youngers carried the main lesson: freedom of the family in its unity, pride for achievements, respect to ancestors, spiritual values, which cannot be bought. The part of Youngers’ spiritual heritage are image of the father, who sacrificed his life for his children’s dreams, the life of the unborn child, the love in the family and the strength to fight prejudice and difficulties to live with dignity in the name of principles and ideals, teaching children to respect them.